Molar behavior vs. molecular behavior
Law of Prägnanz
Other perceptual/grouping principles: principle of closure, principle of similarity, principle of proximity, principle of continuity, principle of inclusiveness.
Productive thinking vs. reproductive thinking (rote memorization & logic).
Field theory - a life space around an individual (very dynamic phenomenon), psychological facts refer to those things that a person is consciously aware of.
Geographical vs. behavioral environments.
The memory trace - memory processes (activity in the brain) leaves behind a memory trace. Repeated activation of a particular memory trace will make it stronger and more likely to be activated again (and more likely to influence one's perception). Two principle make memory traces stronger: recency principle & principle of repetition.
Individual memory traces may occur close in time (recency/contiguity) to each other and occur repeatedly (repetition), thus forming a trace system (individual memory traces become combined into one automatic cognitive process and/or behavior).
Insightful learning - learning as a cognitive phenomenon. A problem is either solved or unsolved, it is unsolved until an organism gains insight into the solution to the problem. Cognitive trial-and-error. What are the four characteristics of insightful learning?
Transposition - a principle learned in one situation being applied to the solution of another problem/in another situation.
Tolman - purposive behaviorism (molar or purposive behaviors)
S-R theories vs. S-S theories, which is Tolman?
What are emphasizers?
Principle of least effort
Cognitive maps - hypothesis, expectancy, means-end readiness.
Confirmation of expectancies is required for learning to take place.
Learning vs. performance (which one is influenced by reinforcement?)
Response learning vs. place learning (according to Tolman, which one is more natural and how was this demonstrated? How else was place learning demonstrated?)
What are reinforcement expectancies? How is this different from previous (S-R) learning theories?
SKIP the formal aspects of Tolman's theory
Six kinds of learning: cathexes, equivalence beliefs, field expectancies, field-cognition modes, drive discriminations, & motor patterns.
Past approaches to observational learning and/or imitation
Thorndike & Watson concluded that learning requires which kind of experience? (vicarious or direct?)
Miller & Dollard's view of imitative behavior (3 categories of imitative behavior): same behaviors (independently learning to respond similarly to the same situation), copying behaviors (one person guiding & correcting another's behavior), and matched-dependent behaviors (an observer is directly reinforced for repeating the actions of a model).
Bandura - observational learning (Bandura calls his approach social cognitive theory; it is also called social learning theory).
Observational learning vs. actually engaging in imitative behaviors (similar distinction to Tolman's distinction between learning and performance).
Bandura's Bobo doll experiment - phase one demonstrated observational learning (vicarious reinforcement, vicarious punishment), and phase two demonstrated the distinction between observational learning and imitation (actually implementing what one learned through observation). What influenced whether or not the children engaged in imitation (when did they demonstrate they had learned - the white bars in figure 13-1?)?
Some recent examples of animal observational learning found
Four processes that influence observational learning: (1) attentional processes (sensory capacities, past reinforcement history, & characteristics of models), (2) retentional processes (imaginal storage & verbal storage), (3) behavioral production processes, & (4) motivational processes (reinforcement creates an expectation & serves as an incentive/motivation; reinforcement can be either direct or vicarious).
Anticipated self-reactions (determined by internalized standards of performance & conduct, as well as by perceived self-efficacy).
Reciprocal determinism - the person (beliefs, expectations, traits, dispositions, etc.), the environment (direct contact with stimuli and/or observation of the stimuli), & behavior (a person's behaviors can change the environment and/or a person's own beliefs) all interact to influence the individual and his or her behavior; rats were in a situation where they all could experience the same potential environment depending upon their behavior; beliefs influenced how people behaved even though they were all really in the same environment (they were all really on a variable-interval schedule of reinforcement, but different groups were misinformed about the schedule, and they acted on their beliefs).
Self-regulation of behavior: internalized performance standards for ourselves, & perceived self-efficacy.
Performance standards determine our intrinsic reinforcement (intrinsic reinforcement may be reduced if an activity begins to be extrinsically reinforced).
Perceived self-efficacy vs. real self-efficacy.
Perceived self-efficacy is influenced by: (1) personal accomplishments/failures, (2) observational learning - especially of those similar to yourself, & (3) verbal persuasion - short lasting (temporary) effect on perceived self-efficacy.
An individual's moral code will also influence performance standards & perceived self-efficacy. If one's moral code is violated, then one will experience self-contempt.
Other than changing our moral code or changing our behavior, we can avoid self-contempt by: (1) moral justification, (2) euphemistic labels, (3) advantageous comparisons, (4) displacement of responsibility, (5) diffusion of responsibility, (6) disregarding or distorting the consequences, (7) dehumanization, & (8) attributing blame.
Total freedom does not exist, instead Bandura believes that individuals do have freedom but only to choose from particular options that are available to us (we cannot influence the conditions we are born into, but we can control our choices among the options available to us).
Faulty cognitive processes (that can lead to maladaptive behavior & mental illness) result from: (1) evaluating things on the basis of appearance, (2) judgments based on insufficient evidence, & (3) faulty processing of information.
Practical applications of observational learning or modeling - disinhibition, facilitation, creativity, & abstract modeling.
Studies on using modeling/observational learning in treatment or counseling: (1) children with a phobia of dogs involving direct modeling & vicarious extinction; (2) children with a phobia of dogs involving symbolic modeling (both single modeling and multiple modeling), is direct or symbolic modeling more effective?; (3) adolescents & adults with a phobia of snakes comparing symbolic modeling, modeling-participation, desensitization, and a control group, which treatment was most effective?
The influence of media and entertainment