The University of North Carolina at Pembroke
Department of Psychology and Counseling
PSY 304-02 History & Systems of Psychology
EDUC 302; 2:00-3:15 TR; Spring Semester 2006

Instructor: Dr. William G. Collier, M.A., M.S., Ph.D.
Office: 318 Education Center
Phone: 521-6458
e-mail: william.collier@uncp.edu
web site: http://www.uncp.edu/home/collierw/
Office hours: 11:15-12:15 MF; 12:15-1:15 TR; 12:30-1:30 W

Text: (1) Hergenhahn, An Introduction to the History of Psychology (5th ed.) 2005.
(2) other assigned readings by way of photocopy, web-site, or library may also be used.

Course Description: A study of the development of psychology as a discipline from ancient Greece to modern times. Present issues in psychology are traced to their origins.

Course Objectives:

(1) To connect contemporary ideas in psychology with their historical antecedents.
(2) To introduce important historical figures and their work in psychology in the context of their times (zeitgeist).
(3) To identify the various systems and schools of psychology.

Evaluation of Students:

Tests (50% of semester grade) - There will be four tests during the semester. The tests will be multiple choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blank, and/or matching. The tests will cover the text, lecture material, and any other assigned readings. In the event that a test is scheduled on a day that class is canceled (due to inclement weather or other factors beyond the instructor's control), then the test will be administered during the next class meeting. There are NO make up exams. One of the test grades will be dropped at the end of the semester for each student. On the day that a test is administered no one will be permitted to arrive late and take the test after the first test has been completed and turned in to the instructor.

Attendance (5% of semester grade) & Misc. Assignments (15% of semester grade) - Attendance will be taken every class meeting. There are no excused absences. If you are in class you will receive credit for attending, if you are not in class you will not receive credit for attending.

In addition, in-class or take home assignments will be given periodically. There are no make-up assignments. You must be present in class to receive credit for an in-class assignment. When a take home assignment is given a due date will be announced for that assignment. The assignment will be due within the first 10 minutes of class on the due date. No late assignments will be accepted! Assignments may consist of matching, completion (fill-in-the-blank), or essay assignments. Students may turn assignments in early or e-mail assignments (any attachments to e-mails must be in a Microsoft Word format) to Dr. Collier by the due time on the due date. The assignments must be received by the due time on the due date. Dr. Collier is not responsible for non-delivered e-mails. If Dr. Collier does not receive your e-mail by the due time on the due date, then the assignment will not be accepted. The university e-mail system records the time that an e-mail is delivered to the receiver. Dr. Collier will use this time to determine if an e-mailed assignment is on time. If the assignment is late, then it will not be accepted. One of the assignment grades will be dropped at the end of the semester for each student.

Term Paper (30% of semester grade) - You are required to write a term paper for this course. The individual you choose for your term paper must be from the list in Appendix A of this syllabus. You must turn in the topic of your paper (i.e., the name of the individual you will examine) to the instructor on Tuesday January 31st at the beginning of class (This will count as two assignment grades - if you turn in a correct name for your paper on time you will receive "100" for this assignment, if you do not turn in the name for your paper on time, or if you turn in an incorrect name not from the list, then you will receive "0" for this assignment. The name you choose must be on the list in Appendix A.). Everyone must turn in a name that they will write their paper on by the end of February or they will receive an F for their semester grade in the course.

Next, you will complete an outline for your paper. This outline must be at least a four level outline (I. A. 1. a.). See Appendix B for part of an example outline. With each succeeding level of an outline, you should become more specific (i.e., more information should be provided in the outline). The outline should be at least three pages long (double spaced, times new roman font, size 12, with one inch margins). This outline will serve as three assignment grades. If the outline is turned in late, then the student will receive zeros for these assignment grades. The outline is due on Tuesday March 14th at the beginning of class. Everyone is required to turn in an outline for their paper or they will receive an F for their semester grade in the course.

The term paper should be written in APA style (5th edition, 2001). The term paper should use the Times New Roman font (size 12) and be between 10 and 12 pages in length (this refers to the body of the paper, not including the cover page and reference pages). You should not write an abstract for this paper. You should have at least 10 references (not counting the textbook for this course). Additional references are strongly recommended. It is unlikely that you will receive either an A or a B on the paper if you have only 10 references. Only two references may be from Internet sources! In addition, you are required to turn in two copies of your term paper! If you do not turn in two copies of your term paper, then you will receive an "F" for your semester grade. The term papers are due on Tuesday March 28th by 5:00 p.m. If a paper is turned in late, then a letter grade (i.e., 10 points) will deducted for each day it is late. Turning a paper in after 5 p.m. on a given day will be treated as if the paper were turned in the following day. For example, if a student were to turn in his or her paper after 5:00 p.m. on March 27th, then that student's paper will considered one day late and 10 points will be deducted from the score on the paper. Everyone is required to turn in a term paper on their previously selected topic or they will receive an F for their semester grade in the course. The specific theme for the term paper is described below:

Critics of our discipline (i.e., psychology) sometimes complain that psychology has yet to produce a genuine scientific genius, like a Newton or a Pasteur. For your term paper, you must evaluate this claim's validity with respect to a single major figure in our discipline's history. Through a detailed study of your subject's life, career, theories and/or research, you must determine whether he or she is/was an eminent scientist (i.e., scientific genius) in the field of psychology. See Appendix C for more information.

Since you will be examining whether or not your subject is/was an eminent scientist, you will have to address and define "science" and "eminent scientist" in your paper. Therefore, you will have an essay assignment (written in APA style, 5th edition, 2001) where you will address: "what is science?" and "what is an eminent scientist/scientific genius?" You should utilize references for this essay assignment and turn in a reference page with your completed assignment. This essay should be from 2-3 pages in length. This essay assignment is due on Thursday February 9th at the beginning of class. This specific essay assignment will be counted as four assignment grades. This essay assignment will ultimately become part of your term paper. I will read and grade the essay assignments, making comments and suggestions. I will attempt to get these essays back to students as early as possible before the term papers are due, however, since I will have approximately 40 essays to grade I cannot say for sure when I will be able to get these essays back to students.

Grade Scale:

Undergraduate letter grades will be assigned according to the following scale: A = 93-100, A- = 90-92, B+ = 87-89, B = 83-86, B- = 80-82, C+ = 77-79, C = 73-76, C- = 70-72, D+ = 67-69, D = 63-66, D- = 60-62, F = 0-59

Disability Statement:
Any student with a documented disability needing academic adjustments is requested to speak directly to Disability Support Services and the instructor, as early in the semester (preferably within the first week) as possible. All discussions will remain confidential. Please contact Mary Helen Walker, Disability Support Services, DF Lowry Building, 910-521-6695.

Appropriate Behavior for College Students:
All students are expected to act in accordance with the UNCP Academic Honor Code. Students have the responsibility to know and observe the UNCP Academic Honor Code. This code forbids cheating, plagiarism, abuse of academic materials, fabrication of information, and complicity in academic dishonesty. Any special requirements or permission regarding academic honesty in this course will be provided to students in writing at the beginning of the course, and are binding on the students. Academic evaluations in this course include a judgement that the student's work is free from academic dishonesty of any type; and grades in this course therefore should be and will be adversely affected by academic dishonesty. Students who violate the code can be dismissed for the University. The normal penalty for a first offense is an F in the course. Standards of academic honor will be enforced in this course. Students are expected to report cases of academic dishonesty to the instructor.


Tentative Course Outline:
This calendar is only tentative. The dates given and the material to be covered may change as the semester progresses. The instructor will announce any changes to this calendar in class.

January 10 Chapter 1
12 Chapters 1 & 2
17 Chapter 2
19 Chapter 3
24 Chapters 3 & 4
26 Chapter 4
31 Chapter 4 - Topic (i.e., individual) for paper is due
February 2 Test #1
7 Chapter 5
9 Chapters 5 & 6 - Essay on Science & Eminent Scientists is due
14 Chapter 6
16 Chapter 7
21 Chapters 7 & 8
23 Chapter 8
28 Test #2
March 2 Chapter 9
7 Holiday - Spring Break
9 Holiday - Spring Break
14 Chapters 9 & 10 - Four level outline for paper is due
16 Chapter 10
21 Chapter 11
23 Chapters 11 & 12
28 Chapter 12 - Term papers are due
30 Test #3
April 4 Chapter 13
6 Chapters 13 & 14
11 Chapter 14
13 Chapter 15
18 Chapter 15
20 Chapters 15 & 17
25 Chapter 17
27 Chapter 17 - Last Day of Class

May 2 - 6 FINAL EXAMS
Test #4 is scheduled for Tuesday May 2nd at 2:00 p.m.


Disclaimer:
This is a description of what you may expect in the course. It is not an exhaustive list of your obligations, nor an exhaustive list of the instructor's responsibilities as a teacher. The instructor may make changes as the semester progresses.


Appendix A
You must choose a person from this list for your paper

Johann Spurzheim; Philippe Pinel; Gustav Fechner;
Ivan Sechenov; Lawrence Kohlberg; Lightner Witmer;
John Dewey; Hermann Ebbinghaus; M.E.P. Seligman;
Margaret Floy Washburn; Mary Whiton Calkins; Erik Erikson;
Pierre Janet; Charles Spearman; G. Stanley Hall;
Vladimir Bechterev; William McDougall; Hugo Munsterberg;
Wilhelm Wundt; Robert B. Zajonc; Kurt Koffka;
Karl Lashley; Muzafer Sherif; James Angell;
Leon Festinger; Robert Sternberg; Clark Hull;
Alfred Adler; George Miller; Howard Gardner;
Kenneth Clark; Frederick Bartlett; Rollo May;
Lev Vygotsky; George Kelley; J. J. Gibson;
Daniel Kahneman; Diana Deutsch; Joseph Wolpe


Appendix B
Partial Example Outline

Paper Topic: Was Sigmund Freud an eminent scientist in the field of psychology?

I. What is Science?

A. Typical definition of science

1. Empirical

a. Obtain measurements and/or descriptions of physical phenomena

2. Objective

a. Subjective views don't drive description

b. View from nowhere

3. Verifiable

a. Publish results and share data with those interested

b. It must be replicable

B. Alternative definitions of science

1. Kuhn's view of science

a. Sociological stages of science that influence the investigative process

2. Popper's view of science

a. A traditional view of science has scientists viewing the world objectively. Popper argues
that scientists don't begin making observations until there is first a problem.

C. Concluding definition of science

1. Science deals with physically observable phenomena. Although the goal of science is to
objectively describe and explain the physical world, scientists are often not objective. Indeed,
Kuhn…

II. Scientific Eminence

A. There is not a single measure of scientific eminence. Instead a number of factors may be
considered as indications of scientific eminence.

1. Whether one is mainly responsible for initiating a "revolutionary" stage in a field of science.

2. Whether one is mainly responsible for establishing a paradigm in a field of science.

3. Whether one is responsible for thoroughly exploring a paradigm experimentally, thus
gathering large amounts of empirical data that support a theory or paradigm (i.e., normal
science). In other words, s/he conducts very good research in large amounts that thoroughly
explores the different areas of the accepted paradigm/theory for that time.

4. Whether one's position in academia, or another field, is high enough to indicate that person is
an eminent scientist or not.

B. Reiteration of paper topic - determining if Freud should be considered an eminent scientist or
not. Does Freud meet any of these requirements for an eminent scientist? If so, which ones? Is
that enough to be considered an eminent scientist or not?

III. Freud's Education


Appendix C
Possible ideas for aspects you may examine in determining whether or not your individual is/was an eminent scientist in psychology

To guide your biographical search, I have provided some questions that you can ask yourself when pouring through the information about the subject of your paper. You will not necessarily obtain answers to all these questions, and you do not need to adhere to this particular order. These are possible aspects you may wish to address in determining the answer to your term paper.

Background. What was his of her birth order? What kind of family was he or she born into in terms of socioeconomic class, professional status of parents, diversity of their backgrounds, and so on? Was the family environment stable or unstable, traumatic or bland? For example, did your subject suffer the experience of orphanhood? Were there any role models available that guided him or her in the choice of occupation and domain of achievement? Was your person popular with peers or a loner? Any disabilities? Was he or she extremely precocious or talented early in childhood? Any instances of "crystallizing experiences" that launched the individual on a scientific career?

Education. How well did you subject do in school? In college? What level of formal education did he or she attain? If a Ph.D. or other higher degree was earned, was it received at an unusually young or old age? Were there any teachers who served a special mentor role in your person's intellectual or academic development? Was your subject's training marginal or central to the domain in which eminence was ultimately obtained? If an outsider, did that marginal background leave an impression on your subject's distinctive contribution?

Personality. Was he or she highly intelligent, perhaps even possessing a "genius-level" intellect? Independent and nonconformist? Introverted? Risk taking? Hardworking, even workaholic? Did he or she have broad intellectual interests? Any evidence of psychopathology, such as manic depression, neurosis, or mild psychosis? Any instances of psychopathology in close relatives that might help explain your subject's idiosyncrasies?

Thought processes. Was your subject an intuitive thinker? Any examples of leaps of imagination or inspiration? Or was your subject extremely analytical and logical in approaching questions? Was there a sense of purpose, of destiny underlying his or her work? Was everything, no matter how diverse, connected by some central theme or preoccupation? What role did chance play? Any examples of serendipity?

Career development. What kind of professional positions were occupied? For example, did he or she attain a professorship at a distinguished university? Did your subject establish connections with a considerable number of notable colleagues? Or was he or she professionally isolated? What about the number of students and followers? Collaborators or rivals? Did your subject receive any contemporary recognition, such as special honors or awards? In the individual's final years, did he or she become the defender of a newly established status quo, rejecting the innovative ideas that were to become important in the next generation?

Productivity. At what age did he or she first make a contribution to the field? Was this unusually young or old? At what age did your subject produce his or her single best work or "masterpiece"? Did this contribution come out at the typical age for the discipline? And at what age was the last contribution made? Was this at an exceptionally advanced age? What was the total number of works produced? How does this compare with what you would expect? Did the rate of productivity rise to some peak and then decline in a fashion you would anticipate or were there some surprises? Any instances of some "swan song" - some final work conceived shortly before death that encapsulated in a distinctive manner the entire course of a career? How influential were your subject's works in that person's own time and in later generations? Any disastrous mistakes that exerted a profound influence on the discipline?

Zeitgeist (i.e., spirit of the times). Did your subject fit in with the mood of the times? Or was your person ahead of the zeitgeist? Did contemporaries reject your subject's ideas so that he or she experienced an uphill fight to fame? Or did celebrity status come easily? Can you identify any examples of multiples? That is, did anyone else come up with the same ideas as your subject at roughly the same time? Finally, what were the general economic, political, social, and cultural conditions in which your subject worked? Economic prosperity? Peace or war? Political or ethnic oppression? Did the general milieu help or hinder your person in achieving greatness?

Final influence (I recommend that you include this as a section of your paper!). What was your subject's ultimate impact in making psychology a legitimate science? Did he or she move the field forward, placing the discipline closer to other recognized sciences? Or was your subject's effect on the field negative, lowering our discipline's status as a science? Did your subject even aspire to make psychology a science? In answering this last question, please be clear what you mean by a science. Do you mean a natural or exact science? Or do you mean a human science? If the former, what criteria do you use to define a hard science? Empiricism? Mathematics or quantification? Theoretical rigor? Falsifiability? If you mean a soft science, then by what criteria do you judge whether someone has made a scientific advance?

Whatever of the preceding information you decide to include in your paper, please remember to make explicitly clear what this information says about the fundamental theme of your essay - whether or not your individual is/was an eminent scientist in the field of psychology.

In making these linkages, remember that I do not necessarily expect a simple yes/no vote. Your subject may fit the typical picture according to some criteria, but depart from the profile according to other criteria. For instance, some of you may be dealing with someone whose genius took an artistic turn. Others of you may be studying a scientist who attained eminence for achievements that required no genuine creativity. Even within science, we can distinguish between practitioners of "revolutionary" versus "normal" science, or between classical and romantic scientists. So be flexible. The portrait of your subject will most likely be painted in diverse shades of gray, rather than in black and white.