HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (BIOLOGY 212)

LECTURE SCHEDULE, SPRING 2001


Instructor: Dr. David Maxwell

Office, S-210

(910) 521-6422

E-Mail: David@nat.uncp.edu


Textbook: Human Anatomy and Physiology

Fifth Edition

Elaine Marieb


Lab Manual: A Guide to Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory

Second Edition

Thomas Rust


Course Objectives

Students enrolled in this course will be expected to learn the basic structure and function of

several organs systems of the human body. In biology 212 the systems covered will include the

cardiovascular, immune, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems.

It should be noted that Biology 212 is the second of a two part sequence of courses. The first part of the sequence (Biology 211) is recommended but not required for the second part. An important part of this course is the laboratory experience which provides the student the opportunity to reinforce concepts introduced in the lecture via "hands on" dissection and

experimentation.


Tests and Grading

The course grade will be determined by the average of six tests. Four of these tests will be administered in lecture and two in laboratory. A typical lecture test will consist of 45 multiple choice questions (counting 90%) and two discussion questions (counting 5% each). The fourth lecture examination will be administered during the final exam period. The final exam is not comprehensive and will count as one lecture test. Laboratory exams are "practical" examinations.


Grading Scale


Average 90-100 88-89 84-87 79-83 76-78 72-75 63-71 60-62 56-59 50-56

on Tests


Grade A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D


An average below 50 will result in a failing (F) grade.






Attendance Policy


Regular attendance is expected and required. All students are expected to attend all classes except when unavoidable circumstances arise. Excess absenteeism may result in a reduction of grade. It is not necessary to inform the instructor of the reason for the absence.




Lecture Test Schedule


Test 1 Friday, February 2


Test 2 Friday, March 2


Test 3 Wednesday, April 4


Test 4 Final Examination Period (Monday, May 7 at 8:00am)


Missing of Tests The missing of a test is a very serious matter. Tests should not be missed unless absolutely unavoidable. If at all possible the necessity to miss a test should be discussed with the instructor BEFORE the test. It that is not possible the instructor should be contacted as soon as possible to discuss the feasibility of a make-up examination. Make-ups will not be given unless an excuse satisfactory to the instructor is given. Make-up examinations may have an all discussion format.


Student Conduct and Deportment. Students are expected to be in their seats ready for the class to begin at the scheduled time. The instructor should not have difficulty in getting the attention of the class. Students should be seated in a conventional matter and remain attentive and awake throughout the class. Students who persist in talking, sleeping or habitually coming into class after the class has started may be asked to leave. Students who do homework from other classes,

fill out their course schedules or write postcards to their friends will not be regarded favorably.


LECTURE SCHEDULE


Section I. Blood (Chapter 18) and The Immune System (Chapter 22)


Composition and functions of blood, blood plasma, formed elements, plasma proteins, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. Hemoglobin and oxygen transport. Erythropoiesis and the anemias. Hemostasis


Humoral and tissue immunity. Active and passive immunity. The generation of an immune response. The generation of antibody diversity. B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Blood groups and blood typing. Disorders of the immune system including AIDS.


Test Friday, February 2


Section II. The Cardiovascular System: the Heart (Chapter 19), Blood Vessels (Chapter 20)

The Lymphatic System (Chapter 21)


Heart chambers and associated great vessels. Pathways of blood flow through the heart.

Heart valves and heart sounds. The sinoatrial node and nervous regulation of the rate and force of heart action. The atrioventricular node and the ventricular conduction system. Contractile characteristics of cardiac muscle. The determinants of cardiac output. Cardiac output at rest and during exercise.


Structure and function of arteries, veins and capillaries. The relationship between cardiac output,

peripheral resistance and blood pressure. Nervous regulation of blood pressure. Capillary membrane dynamics.


Lymph vessels and lymphatic tissues. Flow of lymph, edema and blockage of lymphatic drainage.


Test Friday, March 2


Section III. The Respiratory System (Chpt 23), The Digestive System (Chpt 24),

Nutrition and Metabolism (Chpt 25)


Structure and function of the respiratory system. Mechanism of ventilation. Vital capacity and

lung volumes and capacities. Exchange or respiratory gasses across the respiratory membrane.

Transport of respiratory gasses by the blood. The oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. The types of hypoxia. The respiratory quotient.


Anatomy and physiology of the digestive system. The digestion and absorption

of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. The enzymes of digestion.


The metabolic fate of foods after absorption. The hormonal regulation of metabolism.

The absorptive and postabsorptive phases of metabolism. Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis,

lipogenesis, and lipolysis. The critical role of the liver in metabolism. The structure and

function of plasma lipoproteins. The metabolism of cholesterol. Basal metabolic rate.

The essential amino acids. The physiological role of vitamins.


Test Wednesday, April 4








Section IV. The Urinary System (Chapter 26) and The Reproductive Systems (Chapter 28)


Anatomy and physiology of the urinary system. Structure and function of the nephron.

Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Renal clearance of

protein, glucose, sodium, urea, ammonia and other compounds. Hormonal regulation of kidney function. The role of ADH in water balance. The role of aldosterone and the kidney in

the regulation of fluid volume and blood pressure.




Anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Regulation of gonadal function by pituitary gonadotrophins. The physiological effects of the gonadal steroids. The cyclic nature of the functioning of the female reproductive system. The follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle Meiotic arrest in oogenesis.

The sexually indifferent stage and determination of genotypic and phenotypic sex. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and early pregnancy.




Test Final Examination Period - Monday, May 7 at 8:00am


Laboratory Schedule


Jan 8,9 No Laboratory

Jan 15, 16 No Laboratory - Martin Luther King Birthday

Jan 22, 23 Determination of Concentration of Hemoglobin in Blood

Jan 29,30 Blood Typing, Microhematocrit, Blood Pressure

Feb 5,6 Dissection of Circulatory System of Cat

Feb 12,13 Dissection of Circulatory System of Cat

Feb 19,20 Dissection of Circulatory System of Cat

Feb 26,27 Midterm Laboratory Examination

Mar 5,6 No Laboratory - Spring Break

Mar 12,13 Dissection of Cat Digestive and Respiratory Systems, Spirometer

Mar 19,20 Digestion Experiments

Mar 26,27 The Phases of Metabolism

April 2,3 Dissection of Cat Urinary and Reproductive Systems

April 9,10 The Clearance of Urea

April 16,17 The Histology of Gonads

April 23, 24 ELISA for Human Gonadotrophin

April 30, 1 Final Laboratory Examination






























































BIOLOGY 212 - HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

Revised Schedule - Spring 2000


Lecture


Test I. Monday, February 7

Test II. Monday, February 28

Test II. Friday, March 24

Test IV. Wednesday, April 12

Test V. Final Examination, Monday, May 8








Laboratory


Monday Lab


Jan 24 Dissection of Circulatory System I

Jan 31 Dissection of Circulatory System II

Feb 7 Dissection of Circulatory System III

Feb 14 No Laboratory

Feb 21 No Laboratory

Feb 28 Blood Typing, Microhematocrit, Blood Cells

TUESDAY Feb 29 Midterm Examination


Tuesday Lab

HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (BIOLOGY 212)

SCHEDULE OF MONDAY LABORATORY, SPRING 2000


Date


Jan 10 Spectrophotometry of Hemoglobin


Jan 17 Holiday


Jan 24 Dissection of Circulatory System I


Jan 31 Dissection of Circulatory System II


Feb 7 Dissection of Circulatory System III


Feb 14 Dissection of Circulatory System IV


Feb 21 No Laboratory


Feb 28 Blood Typing, Microhematocrit, Blood Cells


MIDTERM EXAMINATION ON TUESDAY, February 29


March 6 Spring Break


March 13 Dissection of Digestive and Respiratory Systems


March 20 Digestion Experiments


March 27 Absorptive and Postabsorptive Phases of Metabolism


April 3 The Clearance of Urea


April 10 Dissection of Urinary and Reproductive Systems


April 17 Histology of Gonads


April 24 Pregnancy Tests


FINAL EXAMINATION ON MONDAY, MAY 1










HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (BIOLOGY 212)


SCHEDULE OF TUESDAY LABORATORY, SPRING SEMESTER 2000


Jan 11 Spectrophotometry of Hemoglobin


Jan 18 No Laboratory


Jan 25 Dissection of Circulatory System I


Feb 1 Dissection of Circulatory System II


Feb 8 Dissection of Circulatory System III


Feb 15 Dissection of Circulatory System IV


Feb 22 Blood Cells, Blood Typing, Microhematocrit, Blood Pressure


Feb 29 MIDTERM EXAMINATION


Mar 7 Spring Break


Mar 14 Dissection of Digestive and Respiratory Systems


Mar 21 Digestion Experiments


Mar 28 Absorptive and Postabsorptive Phases of Metabolism


April 4 Clearance of Urea


April 11 Dissection of Urinary and Reproductive Systems


April 18 Histology of Gonads


April 25 Pregnancy Tests


May 3 FINAL LABORATORY EXAMINATION, MONDAY MAY 1


Major Concepts