Biology 211

Fall 2000

Instructor: Dr. Harold D. Maxwell

Office: Oxendine Science Building 218

Telephone: (910)-521-6422

Lecture Textbook: Human Anatomy and Physiology (fifth edition)

Elaine Marieb

Laboratory Manual: A Guide to Anatomy and Physiology (second edition)

Thomas G. Rust

Course Description:

A course covering the structure and function of the human body. Appropriate physiological

exercises and dissections of a mammal are performed concurrently in the laboratory.

Note: This is the first part of a two semester (Bio 211 and Bio 212) sequence in human anatomy and physiology. Although most students elect to do so, it is not necessary to take both

parts of the sequence nor is 211 prerequisite for 212.

Attendance Policy:

Attendance is required at all class meetings (lecture and laboratory). Because it is recognized that unavoidable circumstances arise which make it necessary for students to miss an occasional class, each student is allotted a maximum of seven absences (lecture and laboratory combined) without penalty. Each absence in excess of the above allotment will result in a reduction in the course grade of one increment (A to A- for example). A seating chart will be made on the first day of class. Subsequently, students not in their assigned seat at the time the class is scheduled to begin will be counted absent. It is not necessary to inform the instructor about the reason for an absence.

Tests and Course Grade:

The final grade in the course will be determined by the average of seven tests. Five of these tests will be lecture tests and two will be laboratory examinations. The general format of the lecture tests will be 45 multiple choice questions (counting 2% each) and two short discussion questions

counting 5% each. The laboratory tests are "practical" examinations.

Grading Scale:

Average on Tests 90-100 88-89 84-87 78-83 76-77 72-75 63-71 60-62 56-60 50-56

Final Grade A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D

Students With Disabilities

Any student with a documented disability needing academic adjustments is requested to speak directly to Disability Support Services and the instructor as early in the semester (preferably within the first class week) as possible. All discussions will remain confidential.

This syllabus is available in alternative formats upon request. Please contact Mary Helen Walker, Disability Support Services, Career Services Center, 521-6270.

Course Objectives:

Part I. To define anatomy and physiology and describe their major subdivisions.

To explain the complementarily of structure and function.

To name, in order of increasing complexity, the different levels of structural

organization of the human body and explain their relationships.

To list and briefly explain the major functions of the eleven organ systems of

the human body.

To define homeostasis and understand its importance in physiology and pathology.

To describe the anatomical position and to use correct anatomical terminology to

describe the human body.

To locate and name the major body cavities, their subdivisions, and the major organs

found within them.

To relate the structure of the plasma membrane to passive and active transport mechanisms and to differentiate between these processes.

To understand the relative fluid volumes and solute composition of the fluid compartments of the body.

To define membrane potential and explain how the resting membrane potential is


To understand the structure, function and occupance of the four primary tissue types

and the secondary types of each.

Part II. To explain the structure and function of the integumentary system.

To understand why serious burns are life threatening and to describe the

extent of a burn.

To understand the causes and characteristics of the major types of skin cancer.

To understand the structure and function of bones and bone tissue.

To compare and contrast the structure of the four types of bones.

To compare and contrast the two types of bone formation.

To understand the roles of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling.

To understand the role of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in the regulation

of bone metabolism.

To name the major parts of the axial and appendicular skeletons and describe their functions.

To name and describe the common movements of the human body and to understand

the structure and function of the joints that allow those movements.

Part III. To compare and contrast the histology and physiology of the three types of muscle.

To name and identify some of the major muscles of the human body.

To explain the origin, insertion and action of the major muscles.

To understand how muscles produce the movements of the human body.

To understand the structure of a skeletal muscle and how it can produce movement

by the sliding of myofilaments.

To understand the importance of ATP in muscle contraction and how ATP

is produced in the respiration of foods.

To compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

To understand tetanus and oxygen debt.

To understand how the nervous system regulates the contraction of skeletal muscle.

Part IV. To understand the organization of the nervous system including the various

types of neuroglia with the nervous system.

To understand the types of neurons.

To understand the generation and production of an action potential and the

critical role of myelin in that process.

To understand the structure and function of a synapse and neurotransmitters.

To understand the function of a variety of neurotransmitters and the summation

of postsynaptic potentials.

To describe the structure and function of the major subdivisions of the human brain.

To describe how the meninges, blood brain barrier and cerebrospinal fluid protect the

central nervous system.

To understand the pathology of some nervous system diseases such as Parkinson's

and Alzheimer's disease.

Part V. To learn the basic organization of the spinal cord; ascending and descending tracts etc.

To learn the basic organization and function of the spinal and cranial nerves.

To learn the structure and function of the autonomic nervous system and the

control of "involuntary functions".

To understand the principles of dual innervation and antagonism in the functioning

of the autonomic nervous system.

To learn the anatomy and physiology of the special senses.


Section I (Test on Wednesday, Sept 13)

The Human Body: an Orientation (Chpt 1)

Structure and Function of The Plasma Membrane (Chpt 3)

Histology (tissues) (Chpt 4)

The Integumentary System (Chpt 5)

Section II (Test on Wednesday, October 4)

Bones and Skeletal Tissues (Chpt 6)

The Axial Skeleton (Chpt 7, Part 1)

The Appendicular Skeleton (Chpt 7, Part 2)

Joints (Chpt 8)

Section III (Test on Friday, October 27)

The Muscular System, Anatomy and Kinesiology (Chpt 10)

Muscles and Muscle tissue, The Physiology of Muscle Contraction (Chpt 9)

The Release of Energy From Food (Respiration) (Chpt 25-in part)

Section IV (Test on Friday, November 17)

Organization of the Nervous System, Neurophysiology

Generation and Conduction of a Nerve Impulse

Summation of Postsynaptic Potentials at Synapses (Chpt 11)

The Brain (Chpt 12)

Section V (Test on Monday, December 18 at 8:00am)

The Spinal Cord (Chpt 12)

The Spinal Nerves (Chpt 13)

The Cranial Nerves (Chpt 13)

The Autonomic Nervous System (Chpt 14)

The Special Senses (Chpt 16)

Lecture Test Schedule

Test 1 Wednesday, September 13

Test 2 Wednesday, October 4

Test 3 Friday, October 27

Test 4 Friday, November 17

Test 5 Monday, December 18 (Final Exam Week)

Note: The final examination is not comprehensive.


August 28-29 Osmotic Balance in Cells

September 4-5 No Laboratory

September 11-12 Histology I

September 18-19 Histology II

September 25-26 The Skeletal System I

October 2-3 The Skeletal System II

October 9-10 The Skeletal System III

October 16-17 Midterm Laboratory Examination

October 23-24 Dissection of Muscular System of Cat I *

October 30-31 Dissection of Muscular System of Cat II*

November 6-7 Physiology of Muscle Contraction

November 13-14 Physiology of the Nerve Impulse

November 20-21 Anatomy of the Spinal Cord and Peripheral Nerves

November 27-28 The Anatomy of the Brain

December 4-5 Laboratory Examination

Note: There will be no laboratory on December 11.

*Dissection Kit Required Laboratory Test Schedule

Test 1 Monday, October 16 or Tuesday, October 17

Test 2 Monday, December 4 or Tuesday, December 5

Major Concepts