NAME:
BIOLOGY 100
STUDY GUIDE 10, CHAPTER 10
(Modules 2, 3,4, 6, 7,8, 9 11,12. 14 16); * means to do only.

1. Who are the two biologist responsible for demonstrating that DNA is the genetic material of bacteriophages?

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2. When a T4 bacteriophages infects an E. coli cell, what part of the phage enters the bacterial, or host cell cytoplasm?

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3. True or False: The way that the genetic material of a bacteriophage enters a bacterial cell is most like the way that a drug is injected with a syringe, or a hypodermic needle.

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4 . Scientists now know how to put together a bacteriophage with the protein coat of phage T2 and the DNA of phage T4. If this composite phage were allowed to infect a bacterium, what would be the composition of the phages produced in the bacterial cell?

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*5. What name is given that denotes the building units or monomers of nucleic acids?
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*6. Nitrogenous bases found in nucleic acids are classified into two distinct categories. Name the two categories and list the bases that are found in each category.

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A.

B.

*7 . List the chemical components of a nucleotide.
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*8 .Based only on shape, how do DNA and R NA differ?List
two chemical structural difference between DNA and RNA.
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A.

B.


*9. . Identify from among the following statements those that are
not true: The DNA molecule has a uniform diameter. In a DNA molecule adenine bonds to thymine and guanine to cytosine. The DNA molecule is in the form of a double helix. Watson and Crick received a Nobel Prize for their description of the structure of DNA. The sequence of nucleotides along the length of a DNA strand is restricted by the base-pairing rules.

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*10. Along one strand of a double helix is the nucleotide sequence AGCGGCTAC. What is the corresponding complementary sequence for the other DNA strand?

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*11. When a DNA molecule replicates, each of the two daughter molecules will have one old strand (part of the parental molecule) and one newly created strand. What is this process of replication called?

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*12. When one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains what percent of the parent DNA?
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13. What purpose is served by multiple origins of replication on the DNA molecules of eukaryotic cells?

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14. During copying of DNA in mammals, nucleotides are added to the growing chain at what rate? In bacteria?
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15. Why does a DNA strand grow only in the 5' to 3' direction?
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*16. What are the two major roles of DNA polymerase
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*17. What is the role of DNA ligase in DNA replication?

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*18. What purpose is served by special enzymes called DNA helicases?

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*19. Basically, what does the "one-gene-one polypeptide" theory state?

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*20. Describe the flow of genetic information in a eukaryotic cell.
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*21. What is transcription? Where does it occur?
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A.

B.

*22. What is translation? Where does it occur?
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A.

B.


*23. According to experimental evidence, what are the "words" of the genetic code (the units that specify amino acids)?

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*24. the direction for each amino acid in a polypeptide are indicated by a codon that consists of how many nucleotides?

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*25. What is a codon? HINT: Closely related to number 23.
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*26. A particular protein is 100 amino acids long. In the gene for this protein, how many nucleotides are needed to code for this protein?

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*27. The genes needed for Protein-X require 20 nucleotides sequences. How many amino acids would one expect to find in Protein-X?

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*28. A base substitution in a gene does not always result in a different protein. What factor could account for this?

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*29. How many possible codons exist? How many of the codons code for amino acids? What purpose
is served by the remaining codons?

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A.
C.

B.

*30. The RNA codon AUG has two meanings. What are they?
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*31. What is the role of RNA polymerase?
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*32. What is the name of the signal that marks the beginning of a gene and causes transcription to begin? The end of a gene that causes transcription to stop?
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A.

B.

*33. Name the process that occurs when RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter DNA?
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34. List in order, the steps in transcription of DNA into RNA in eukaryotic cells.
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A.
B.
C.


35. Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?
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*36. What is the role of mRNA?
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*37. Where in a eukaryotic cell is RNA made? What is the site of RNA's functions?
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A.

B.

38. Which of the following does not happen to eukaryotic cells?

A. Introns are added to the RNA. B. Exxons are spliced together. C. A small cap of extra nucleotides is added to one end of the RNA. D. A long tail of extra nucleotides is added to the other end of the RNA. E. The completed RNA molecule is exported out of the nucleus.

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39. What is being described: the conversion of genetic information from the language of nucleic acids to the language of proteins?

Answer:HINT: SEE NUMBER 23.

*40. List three major functions of transfer RNA (tRNA) has three major functions.
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A.


B.


C.


*41. A typical tRNA has two major structural sitess. Name each site and give each site's function, or role.

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*42. Which one of the following is not true: A ribosome consists of two subunits. Subunits of RNA are made of proteins and ribosomal RNA. The ribosomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the same in structure and in function. The two subunits are the same size. Each ribosome has two binding sites for tRNA. The P site of the ribosome holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.

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43. Which of the following is not true? Translation consists of initiation, elongation, and termination. During polypeptide initiation, an mRNA, the first amino acid attached to its tRNA, and the two subunits of a ribosome are brought together. An mRNA molecule transcribed from DNA is shorter than the genetic message it carries. During the second step of initiation, a large ribosomal subunit binds to a small ribosomal subunit.

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*44. Which one of the following sequences about translation is correct? A. Codon recognition > translocation > peptide bond formation > termination B. Peptide bond formation > codon recognition > translocation > termination C. codon recognition > peptide bond formation > translocation > termination D. codon recognition > peptide bond formation > termination > translocation E. peptide bond formation > translocation > codon recognition > termination

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45. What is being described: any change in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA of a gene?

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46. What is being described: a physical or chemical agent that changes the nucleotide sequence of DNA?

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47. What process(es) account(s) for most mutations?

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