Chapter 8: The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance
SELF-DIRECTED STUDY GUIDE
Modules 8.1 - 8.23


1. The phrase "like begets like" has reference to which of the two types of reproduction?

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2. True/False:Sexual reproduction is more likely to increase genetic variation than is asexual.

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3. Twins may be either fraternal or identical. Which twin type is being described: Some gene variants in common and some not found in the other?

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4. Which of the following are true descriptions of cell division:(A) is necessary for development to occur. (B) can reproduce an entire organism, (C) ensures continuity of life from one generation to generation, or (D) is common in eukaryotes and rare in prokaryotes, or (E) is the basis for both sexual and asexual reproduction?

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5. TRUE OR FALSE:

A. Prokaryotic chromosomes are more complex than those of eukaryotes.

B. Most prokaryotic organisms reproduce mainly by the process of binary fission.

C. Prokaryotic cells are generally smaller and simpler than eukaryotic cells.

D. In prokaryotes, most genes are carried on a circular DNA molecule.

E. Daughter prokaryotic chromosomes are separated by some kind of active movement away from each other and the growth of new plasma membrane between them.

F. Compared to eukaryotic chromosomes, prokaryotic chromosomes are housed in a membran-enclosed nucleus.

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6 .(A) What is a sister chromatid? (B) How many chromatids comprise a single chromosome? (C) At what point are sister chromatids tightly linked together?

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A.

B.

C.

7. What class of organic molecules function in helping to maintain the structure of chromosomes and control the activity of genes?

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8. Prior to mitosis, what name is given to describe each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consisting of a pair of identical structures?

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9. During which phase of the cell cycle do eukaryotic cells spend most of their time?

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10. During which specific subphase of interphase are chromosomes and DNA replicated?

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11. If the S phase was eliminated from the cell cycle, the daughter cells would have how many chromosomes, or genetic material as that which is found in the parental cell?

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12. Which one of the following occurs during interphase: growth of the aster, cell growth, or duplication of the chromosomes?

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13. Which phase of mitosis is being described in each of the situations described below?

A. The nuclear envelope fragments and the nucleoli disappear?

B. The centromeres of each chromosome divide, sister chromatids of a chromosome separate and begin to move toward the opposite poles of a cell?

C. Chromosomes line up on a plane that is located equidistant from the two spindles?

D. Microscopic examination reveals a typical rounded cell shape. The cell has a very narrow middle separating two bulging ends that reminds you of the figure 8?

E. Name the phase of mitosis that near opposite to that of prophase in terms of the events that occur?

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A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

14. Name the term which describes: (A) the process of nuclear division. (B) the process of cytoplasmic division.

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A.

B.

15. During which stages of mitosis would a chromosome consist of two identical chromatids? HINT: MORE THAN ONE ANSWER IS NEEDED.

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16. What is being described: the process by which the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell divides to produce two cells?

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17. Which one of the following is a unique feature of plant cells ?
A cleavage furrow forms B. Cytokinesis does not occur. C. A cell plate forms. D. Four new cells (rather than two) are produced per mitotic division. E. The nucleolus disappears and reappears.

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18. When animal cells are grown in a petri dish, they typically stop dividing once they have formed a single, unbroken layer on the bottom of the dish. This arrest of division is best exemplified by what phenomenon?

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19. A section of a scraped surface heals. The cells fill in the injured area but do not grow beyond that. This is an example of what phenomenon?

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20. Based upon the reading, why do tissue-cultured skin cells stop dividing?

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21. What two human cell types remain in a permanent state of nondivision?

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22. What is being described: Receives messages from outside of the cell that influence cell division? Triggers and controls major events in the cell cycle? Is influenced by growth factors that bind to cell receptors? Includes three checkpoints to complete a cell cycle?
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23. An unidentified sample of animal tissue is being observed. It is noticed that the cells seem not to exhibit density-dependent inhibition. What is the likely source of this tissue sample?
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24. Which one of the following is not an accurate descriptions of cytokinesis in animal cells?
(A) A cleavage furrow forms that eventually cleaves (divides) the cytoplasm.
(B) Microfilaments contract around the periphery (edges) of the cell.
(C) A cell plate forms.
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25. Three major checkpoints exist in the cell-cycle control system that regulates the events of the cell cycle. Specifically, which phases of the cell cycle make up these checkpoints
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26. What chemical substances are responsible for signaling the cell-cycle control system?
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27. Which of the following descriptions is (are) characteristic(s) of benign tumors?
They are cancerous. They spread from the original site. They do not metastasize. They never cause health problems.They can only arise in the brain.

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28. Name two chemotherapeutic drugs that are used to fight cancer. How do these drugs work?
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A.

B.

29. You are the director of research for a drug company. The following list of candidate drugs are brought to you. Which is the most likely to be worth developing as a cancer chemotherapy agent? A drug that: prevents crossing over, interferes with cellular respiration, prevents tetrad formation, causes cells to divide at a right angle from their usual orientation, or prevents sister chromatids from separating at anaphase?

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30. Which of the following would be a function of mitosis: helps organisms grow, regenerates lost parts, allows for asexual reproduction, or repairs tissues?

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31. If a human skin cell with 46 chromosomes divides by mitosis, each daughter cell will contain how many chromosomes?
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32. What is being described: two chromosomes in a nucleus that carry loci for the same traits in the same position on the chromosome but may specify different versions of some trait?
What is the source of these chromosomes?

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A.

B.

33. In sexually reproducing organisms (diploid), which cell type would be diploid? Haploid?

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34. What is the diploid number of chromosomes in human body cells? In human sex cells?
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35. Which one of the following is most like a pair of male human sex chromosomes: identical twins, fraternal twins, the letters of the alphabets, a, knife, fork, and a spoon, a pair of blue jeans, or a bride and a groom?

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36. In humans, what name is given to describe the 22 pairs of chromosomes that do not include the sex chromosomes?
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37. Identify the following descriptions with the appropriate term or terms: (A) the fusion of a sperm with an egg? (B) a mature sex cell? (C) a fertilized egg? (D) the term that names the number of chromosomes in a zygote?

A.

B.

C.

D.

38. Which of the following statements is not true? Gametes are haploid cells. A zygote is a fertilized egg. Somatic cells are diploid. Gametes are made by mitosis. A typical body cell is called a somatic cell.

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39.Use the terms that describes each of the phases of meiosis that appear below.
A. formation and synapsis and tetrads?
B. A tetrad splits with one pair going to each pole of the dividing cell?
C. Sister chromatids separate with each becoming a chromosome and moving to each pole of the dividing cell?
D. Crossing over occurs between homologous chromatids?
E. Sister chromatids align themselves along the equatorial plane of the dividing cell?
F. Homologous pairs of chromosomes align themselves along the equatorial plane of the dividing cell?
Answer:

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

40. Use the terms Meiosis I and Meiosis II to answer the following questions.
A. Four new cells are formed each with the reduced, or haploid number of chromosomes?

B. Halving of the chromosome number occurs? C. Reduction of the 2n, or diploid number of chromosomes to the an, or haploid number? D Two new cells are formed from the original cell with a reduced number of chromosomes?

Answer:

A.

B.

C.

D.

41. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis: Identify each of the following descriptions as being either mitosis, meiosis, or both.
A. Occurs only in diploid cells?
B. Occurs in both diploid and haploid cells
C. Results in two daughter cells, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
D. Characterized by two consecutive divisions.

E. The end result is four haploid cells.
F. Is preceded by a single duplication of chromosomes.
G. Occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms.
H. Results in the formation of unique genetic combinations.
I. Responsible for the formation of gametes.
J. Only one chromosome duplication.

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A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

J.


42. Name the three processes that lead to genetic variations ( variations) among offspring. HINT: one of these two processes occurs after the events of meiosis.

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43. Why is cancer not usually inherited?

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44. What is a karyotype? What can a karyotope reveal?

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A.

B.

45. Distinguish the following: crossing over and chiasma.
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46. What is nondisjunction of chromosomes? Which type(s) of chromosomes could be affected?
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A.

B.


47. Describe the following chromosomal types as each relates to humans. include in your description, the possible sex of the individual, and

physical or chemical behavior.

XO -


XXY -


XYY -


Trisomy#21 -


XXX -


48. Distinguish the following: deletion, inversion, and translocation.

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A.

B.

C.

49. Which of the following is not a component of meiosis: crossing over, pairing of homologous chromosomes, independent orientation of chromosomes, the production of gametes, or random fertilization?

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