SELF-DIRECTED STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 9 - PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE (MODULES 9.1-9.17, 21,24)

1. What is being described: Particles called pangenes originate in each part of an organism's body and collect in the sperm and eggs where they can be passed on to the next generation?
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2. Who is considered to be the father of modern day genetics, the science of heredity; noted for doing research that revealed basic principles of genetics by breeding garden peas?
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3. True/False: A. The offspring of two different varieties are called hybrids. B. Hybridization is also called a cross. C. The parental plants of a cross are the P generation. D. The hybrid offspring of a cross are the P1 generation.E. The hybrid offspring of an F1 cross are the F2 generation.

Answer:

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

4. What is the term used to describe the varieties of plants in which self-fertilization produces offspring that are identical to the parents?
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5. What is about to be described: a cross in which the parents differ in only one characteristic, or trait? C. Cite two examples.
Answer:

A.

B.

6. What is being described in the following situation: alternative forms (of the trait) of the same gene? Cite one example.
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7. Identify each of the following description appropriately.

A. An organism that has two different alleles for a particular gene?

B. An organism that has two identical alleles for a particular gene?

C. The outward, or physical and chemical makeup of an organism's genotype?

D.Two alleles of an organism differ. However, only one determines the phenotype (appearance) of the organism?

E. The arrangement of the allelic pair for a particular gene?

F. Two alleles of an organism differ with one of the alleles having no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance?

Answers:

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

8 .A. What is found at the same locus of homologous chromosomes? B. How many of these characters are carried on homologous chromosomes for each trait at a given locus?
Answer:

A.

B.


9. Define, or describe the following terms: parental generation, first filial generation, and second filial generation.

Answers:
A. __

B. __

C. __


10. Using no more than three lines at the most, list Mendel's four hypotheses.

Answers:
A.



B.



C.



D.



11. What is being described (HINT: A DIAGRAM:) It is used to keep track of the gametes and offspring. Note: Give the location of the gametes and the offspring.
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12. True/False: According to research, Mendel's law of the segregation of genes during gamete formation applies to all forms of life.

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13. How many alleles are carried on homologous chromosomes for each trait at a given locus?

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14. In humans, freckles is due to a dominant allele (F), without freckles, is due to a recessive allele (f).
A woman with freckles, whose mother was without freckles, has a baby with a man who is without freckles. What are the chances that this child will have freckles? SHOW ALL WORK.
Answer:

 

 

15. Two heterozygous freckled parents have a child.
A. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the child?
B. What is the expected genotypic ration of the child?
SHOW ALL WORK TO THE SIDE.
Answers:

A.

B.

C.


16. Free earlobe (A) is a dominant trait. The (A) allele is dominant to the (a) allele, which results in attached earlobe in homozygous recessive individuals. A heterozygous free earlobe man marries a woman who has attached earlobes. What are the possible phenotypes of their offspring? SHOW ALL WORK.
Answers:

 



17. In humans, normal pigment is due to a dominant allele (A). Albinism is due to a recessive allele (a).
Two married couples, one who is an albino, and the other, is heterozygous for normal pigment, have several children. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of the children?
SHOW ALL WORK.

Answer:




18. Identify what is about to be said:" Each pair of alleles segregates independently of the other pairs of alleles during the formation of gametes".
Answer:

 

 

19. What is the expected phenotypic ratio resulting from a dihybrid cross( that is heterozygous for each trait )for each trait and showing independent assortment?

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20 . What is a test cross?
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21. You use a testcross to determine the genotype of a Lab with normal eyes. Half of the offspring of the testcross are normal and half develop PRA, a type of blindness. What is the genotype of the normal parent?

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22. Using a six-sided die, what is the probability of rolling a 5 or a 6? SHOW WORK.
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23. Assume that the probability of having a female child is 50% and the probability of having a male child is also 50%, what is the probability that a couple's

first-bone child is female and the second-born child is male?

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24. In a family of four children, what is the probability that all of them are of the same se x? SHOW WORK.

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25. What must be the genetic makeup of a carrier of a genetic disorder who does not show the symptoms? How might this individual affect the offspring?
Answer:
A.

 

B.

26. Name and describe two recessive genetic disorders and two dominant genetic disorders.
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27. What is being described: a cross that involves two sets of traits, or characters?
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28. What is a hybrid?
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29. What is a pedigree chart?

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30. Deafness is due to the recessive allele, d. Normal hearing, to the dominant allele, D. A man and a woman who are both carriers of the Martha's Vineyard deafness allele have had three children who are not deaf. If the couple has a fourth child, what is the probability that the child will be deaf? SHOW ALL WORK.NOTE:
Answer:



31. Dr. Williams' parents have normal hearing. However, Dr. Williams has an inherited form of deafness. Dr. Williams' parents could have what genotypes?

Answer:

32. A. What is incomplete dominance? B. Cite two examples: one in plants and one in humans).

Answer:

A.

B.


INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE FOLLOWS.
33. Make crosses between the following flowering snapdragon plants and give the (A) phenotypic & genotype ratios of the expected offspring.SHOW WORK.

A. Rr x rr

 

B. Rr x Rr

C. rr x RR

Answers:

A.

B.

C.

34 A. What is hypercholesterolemia? B. Describe the HH individuals, the Hh individuals and the hh individuals in terms of phenotype.
Answers:

A.


B.

C.

D.

35. Most genetic diseases in humans are caused by what kind of alleles?HINT: dominant or recessive?

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36. What is being described: can be used for karyotyping and biochemical testing of the fetus?

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37. The term multiple, implies many. Name a human phenotype that is due to multiple alleles.

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38. Name the universal blood donor phenotype. Explanation.
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39. What is the universal recipient? Explain.
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40. A Blood type A individual may receive a blood transfusion from which blood type individual(s)?
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41. A Blood type O individual may receive a blood transfusion from which blood type individual(s)?
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42. A Blood type B individual may receive a blood transfusion from which blood type individual(s)?
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43. John Sr. is blood type A, his wife Sally is blood type O. They have three children, John Jr., Mary, and Jill. John Jr. is blood type O.. What are the possible phenotypes and genotypes of
A. John Sr.:
B. Sally
C. Mary
D. Jill and E. John Jr.

Answers: Genotypes first; Phenotypes second

A.

B.

C.

D.

44. Bob has blood type B and his wife, Laura, has blood type A. What are the possible blood phenotypes can they expect to have among their offspring? SHOW ALL WORK.

Answer:

 

 

 

45. How does sickle-cell disease demonstrate pleiotropy?
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46. Describe the three phenotypes that may appear in a population by using the example cited in 42. HINT: CLOSELY RELATED !!!
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47. A. What are codominant alleles? B. Explain how sickle-cell disease represents codominance. C. Give another example of codominant alleles mentioned in the chapter.

Answer:

A.

B.

C.

48. What is polygenic inheritance? Cite two human examples.
Answer:

 


49. Which one of the following is basically the converse of pleiotropy:A. incomplete dominance,B. codominance,C. multiple alleles, D. polygenic inheritance, or E. blending inheritance?

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50. Briefly, describe the sex- determining systems in humans.
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51. What is the relationship, if any, between persons who are heterzygous for sickle-cell disease and malaria?

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52. What does the chromosome theory of inheritance state?

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53.. How many sex chromosomes are in a human gamete? HINT: BE CAREFUL!!!

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54.. What do amniocentesis and chorionic vilus sampling have in common other than the fact that both procedures can be used to identify many inherited disorders?

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55. How is sex determined in most ants and bees?

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56. What is meant by the statement that "male bees are fatherless"?

Answer:

MODULE 9.24

57. What is a sex-linked gene, or allele?

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58. A. Name and briefly describe three sex-linked disorders that may affect humans; especially males.

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59. Why do the above disorder rarely, if ever, affect females?

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60. John's mother, Jill, is a carrier of the hemophilia allele. His dad, Bill, does not have the disease.

A. What is the genotype of Jill?

B. What is the genotype of Bill?

C. What is the probability that John has inherited the hemophilia allele, and may come down with hemophilia? SHOW WORK!!!

D. What is the probability that John has not inherited the hemophilia allele, and will not come down with the disease? SHOW WORK!!!

61. Neither Richard nor Sarah has Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but their first son does. If the couple has a second child, what is the probability that he or she will also have the disease? SHOW ALL WORK!!

Answer: