Study Guide: Chapter 37: Communities and Ecosystems (1-12, 14- 22)

 

1.*What is the composition of a biological community?

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2. *A bear and a squirrel both eat acorns. What term is used to describe this relationship (between these two animals)?

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3. *What is about to be described: When two different populations in a community benefit from their relationship with each other?

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4. *When a alligator eats a beaver, the interspecific interaction between the two could be expressed as _______ for the alligator and ____ for the beaver. ( - , -); +, + ); (+, -); (-, + )?

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5. *In an ecosystem, which one of the following would you most expect to find interspecific competition? Populations of two species that occupy the same niche, males of a species during the mating season, two wasp species that mimic each other's appearance, males and females of a species in which both sexes occupy the same niche, or a prey species and its predator?

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6. *An owl swooping down quickly to capture, kill, and eat a rat is an example of what type of interspecific interaction?

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7. *What is about to be described: The sum total of a population's use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat?

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8. What is resource partitioning? Clearly cite an example of what the organism(s) is/are doing that would demonstrate resource partitioning.

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9. How are dinoflagellates important to coral and coral-dwelling animals?

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10. What is about to be describ ed: A series of reciprocal adaptations in two species? Cite one example.

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11. *What is camouflage? Site an example.

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12. Based upon what you know about plants and animals in general, why do you suppose most plants ahve a variety of chemicals, spines, and thorns to protect them or to make them undesirable by herbivores?

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13 *The prokaryotes that cause tooth decay have what kind of relationship with humans?

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14. *Within a community, how is an oak tree defined?

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15. *On Earth, by what process is most organic molecules made or produced?

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16. *In a hypothetical food chain consisting of hickory trees(with nuts), squirrels, snakes, and hawks, how would you categorize each member of the food chain?

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17. *In a hypothetical food chain consisting of grass, grasshoppers, sparrows, and hawks, how would you describe the grasshoppers?

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18. *In a food chain consisting of phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, fishermen, how are the fishermen classified?

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19. True or False: Several species of primary consumers may feed on the same species of producer.

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20. *What name is used to describe the primary decomposers of a community? Site one example.

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21. *In a certain ecosystem, field mice are preyed on by snakes and hawks. THe entry of wild dogs into the system adds another predator of the mice. Of the following. which one would be the most likely short-term result of this addition? Extinction of the hawks. Migration of the hawks to another ecosystem. A reduction in numbers of mice. An increase in snake population. or A tendency for hawks to prey on the dogs?

Answer: ONLY ONE ANSWWER FROM THE CHOICES GIVEN ABOVE!

22. *Complete the following statement: Even consumers at the highest level of a food web eventually becomes food for __________. HINT: THE ANSWER APPEARS ELSEWHERE IN THIS STUDY GUIDE.

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23..* True/False statement: In ecosystems, the flow of energy is one way(into and out of an ecosystem), while chemicals (nutrients) are recycled within an ecosystem.

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24. *What term is used to describe the number of species in a community?

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25. *What is a keystone species that is a predator?

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26. *When a large Robeson County farm is abandoned, its formerly plowed fields first become weedy meadows, then shrubby areas, and finally forest. What is this sequence of events called?

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27. True or False concerning the role of fire in an ecosystem: Fire is essential tomaintaining some ecosystems.

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28. What is an invasive species? Cite one example.

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29. Which one of the following processes does not occur in ecosystems: Energy flows through the ecosystem. Nitrogen is cycled between biotic and abiotic forms. Carbon is cycled between biotic and abiotic forms. The energy source that powers the system is used by consumers to make organic compounds. Producers convert light energy to chemical energy.

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30. What is being described in the following phrase: for a given area and time period, the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy?

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31. *In an average ecosystem, about how much energy is present in the organisms at a given trophic level compared to the organisms at the next higher trophic level?

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32. *Application of Number 22: If there are 1000 metric tons of producers in an ecosystem, about how much of the energy in those producers will be available to secondary consumers in this ecosystem?

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33. *If you want to do all that you can to help our global environment, one thing that you can do every day is to eat a diet that consists of what kind of organisms?

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34. Select from among the following substances the one that is not cycled between biotic and abiotic reservoirs: water, carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus? BE VERY CAREFUL!!!

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35. Which one of the following frequently cycles through the environment, bypassing biotic (living) components and relying completely on geological processes: carbon, water, nitrogen, nitrogen and carbon, or carbon and nitrogen?

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36. *Carbon mainly cycles between the biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) worlds by what two biological processes?

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37. Select from among the following conversions the one that does not represent a step in the nitrogen cycle: nitrites to nitrates, ammonium to atmospheric nitrogen, ammonium to nitrites, atmospheric nitrogen to ammonium, or nitrates to atmospheric nitrogen?

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38. Which one of the following is not a true description of the nitrogen cycle: Nitrogen is cycled through living organisms. Nitrogen is a component of all proteins. It (nitrogen cycle) requires different types of bacteria. When plants and animals die, their nitrogen is recycled. Nitrogen gas is converted to nitrates in plant leaves.

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