Chapter 11- Skeletal System

Study Guide #11

*1. List four (4) functions of the skeletal system.

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*2. (A) Name the specific type of tissue that comprises ligaments and tendons.(B) Distinguish between ligaments and tendons with respect to function.hat do ligaments

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(A)

 

(B)

3. Identify the following: (A) diaphysis, (B) epiphyses, (C) medullary cavity and (D) periosteum.

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(A)

 

(B)

 

(C)

 

(D)

 

 

4. What is being described: has lacunae in concentric circles around central canals and is found on the wall of the shaft of a long bone?

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5. (A) Describe the microscopic appearance of spongy bone. (B) What do the spaces of spongy bone contain and (C) What is the function of its contents?

Answer:

(A)

 

(B)

(C)

6. Distinguish between the following types of cells: osteoblast, osteocyte and osteoclast.

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A.

B.

C.

7. Distinguish the following:(A)complete fracture, (B)incomplete fracture, (C)simple fracture, (D)compound fracture, (E)spiral fracture and (F)an impacted fracture.

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A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

8. What chemical nutrients/hormone are necessary for normal bone growth in the young? HINT: Four hormones are involved and two nutrients found in foods.

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9. (A) What effect does too much growth hormone have on bone growth in children? (B) In adults?

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(A)

(B)

10. By what process are most bones of the body formed?

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11. What is the function of the following hormones in bone recycling: calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone)?

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12. The continued erosion and replacement of bone tissue is called by what name?

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13.(A) Can estrogen replacement therapy be used to treat osteoporosis? (B) What are some objections to its use? Cite four complications that could arise.

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(A)

(B)

14. A hematoma followed by fibrocartilage, bony callus and remolding refers to what condition?

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15. The condition in which the bones are weakened due to a decrease in the bone mass is called by what name?

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16. Choose the following that is not a function of bone: protects vulnerable parts, produce blood cells, supports the body, stores minerals and fats, or produce metabolic enzymes?

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17. On what basis are the bones of the skeleton classified?

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18. True or false: A. The frontal bone forms the forehead. B. The ethmoid bone is bat shaped. C. The occipital bone forms the bridge of the nose. D. The occipital bone contains the foramen magnum.

Answers:

A.

B.

C.

D.

19. True or false: A. The mandible is the upper jaw bone. B. The sternum is an irregular bone. C. The only movable facial bone is the maxillae. D. The zygomatic bone is the cheek bone.

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A.

B.

C.

D.

20. How does the cranium of adults differ from that of newly borns?

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21. Which of the following is the breastbone: sternum, clavicle, manubrium or xiphoid?

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22. Identify the following bone openings according to location and what passes through them: (A) foramen magnum, (B) external auditory canal

A.

 

B.

23. Name the two bones that unite to form the hard palate.

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24. Distinguish the following in terms of location, connection and number: A. true ribs B. false ribs C. floating ribs.

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25. Give the anatomical name for the following: A. Should blade B. upper arm bone C. collar bone.

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26. Give the anatomical name for the following: wrist bones, ankle bones,

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27. What is so "special" about the hyoid bone?

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28. Regarding the hyoid, when can it be a vital tool in helping to determine what appears to be a suspicious death?

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29. Choose the following that is not a function of the thoracic cage: protects the heart and lungs, function in breathing.

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30. What are the major divisions of the axial skeleton? (five major divisions)

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31. True or false: Vertebrae: A. help protect the spinal cord. B. help form four curvatures of the spine. C. separated by intervertebral disks D. firm a dorsal backbone E. part of the appendicular skeleton

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32. Which of the following bones is found in the cranium: ulna, hyoid bone, mandible, temporal bones, or coccyx?

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33. Name the only movable bone of the skull .

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34. Which bone (s) help(s) form a portion of the nasal septum: lacrimal bone, nasal bone, ethmoid bone, vomer, or sphenoid bone?

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35. Where (especially)are tooth sockets located?

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36. A discus thrower could accidentally damage which tendons?

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37. Distinguish the following:(A) lordosis, (B)scoliosis and (C)kyphosis.

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(A)

(B)

(C)

38. What name is given to the bones that form the palm of the hand and (B) the foot or instep?

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39. What are sinuses? Where are they located and what function do they serve?

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40. (A)What are sutures? (B)Where can they be located and (C) What purpose do they serve?

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41. Identify the following: A. increases the angle of a joint B. decreases the angle of a joint C. moves a part away from the midline of the body D. moves a part around its own axis

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(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

42. Name an autoimmune disease that is associated with the skeletal system.

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43. Name the action that results in lifting up and down.

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44. What name is given to the movement of a body part in a wide circle? Where in the body can this movement be found?

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45.(A) Anatomically speaking, what are bursa? (B)What purpose, if any do they serve the body?

Answer:

(A)

(B)

46. List four (4) homeostatic mechanisms related to the skeletal system.

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48. What bones comprise the coxal bone?

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49. How do osteocytes receive their blood supply? BE VERY SPECIFIC.

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50. What bones can be found at the distal end of the femur?

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51. Complete the following analogy: The femur is to the lower limb as the ___ is to the upper limb.

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52. Bill has broken a phalange. What does this mean?

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53. Which of the following associations is mismatched: vertebrae --- slightly movable joint, elbow --- synovial joint, hinge joint -- hip, immovable joint --- sutures in the cranium

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54. When you bend your arm, the bump seen as your elbow is part of (A) what bone? (B) What is the anatomical name of the bump?

Answers: (A)

(B)

55. The bump seen on the outside of the ankle is part of (A) what bone? (B) What is the name of the bump?

Answers: (A)

(B)

56. The clavicle articulates with which of the following: the femur and the tibia, the manubrium, scapula, and the humerus; the sternum and the scapula; the scapula and the humerus, or the humerus and the manubrium?

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57. Name the vertebrae that articulates with the ribs.

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58. Label diagram 52 on page 261.