Chapter 12, Muscular System

Study Guide Number 12

 

 

1. Which one of the following is not a function of skeletal muscles: allows movement of bones, aids in body temperature regulation, moves substances through the digestive tract, or stabilizes joints and encourages venous blood flow?

 

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2. In terms of muscle action, how would you describe a muscle that is a prime mover?

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3. What is being described: a muscle which opposes the action of another muscle?

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4. What is being described: a muscle which assists another in an action?

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5. Identify the muscle based on the following descriptions:
 A. the largest, most massive muscle	B.triangular shape (2)		 C	located on the frontal bone
A								B								C

6. Name the special fibrous connective tissue covering of muscles.

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7.(A) Identify four ways that skeletal muscles can be identified or named and (B) give one example of each.

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A											B
a											a
b											b
c											c
d											d

8. What is being described: attach muscle to bone? Attach bone to bone?

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9. Label diagram #42 on page 284 by using the terms that are listed.

 

 

 

 

10.Name the muscle that is responsible for raising the arm at the shoulder.

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11. Name the large calf muscle that is responsible for extending the foot.

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12. What term is used to identify the (A) thin filaments of a muscle fiber? (B) the thick filaments of a muscle fiber?

Answers: A										B

13. Identify muscles based upon the following descriptions: A. the "kissing" muscle B. the large buttock muscle associated with walking upright C. the group of muscles that flex the lower leg D. used for blinking and squinting E. closes the jaw F. closes and protrudes lips G. raises the corners of the mouth H. wrinkles forehead and lifts eyebrows I. Closes the eye

Answers:

A.

B.

C.

D.

E.

F.

G.

H.

I.

14. Give the general location of the following muscles: hamstring group, trapezius, rectus abdominis, triceps brachii, quadriceps .HINT: USE THE FOLLOWING KEY: ABDOMEN, NECK/BACK, THIGH, UPPER ARM

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15. Match each function to a muscle of the buttocks and legs by using the following key: gastrocnemius, gluteus maximus, tibialis anterior, beceps femoris

A. Extends the thigh back		__________________________________
B. Bends ankle so that foot is upward	____________________________________
C. Bends leg at knee and bends sole of foot	____________________________
D. Bends leg at knee and extends thigh back	____________________________

16. In questions 33-35, on page 284, match each function to a muscle of the head and neck in the key.

A chewing muscle _____________________

Closes the eye ________________________

Moves head and scapula __________________

17. In questions 36-38, on page 284, match the functions to a muscle of the upper limb and trunk in the key.

Brings arms across the chest ______________________

Compresses abdomen; flexes the spine _________________

Straightens forearm at elbow _________________________

18. How, or on what basis, are the three types of muscles distinguished?

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A.

B.

C.

19. What is another term for a muscle fiber?

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20. Which of the following is true regarding a muscle fiber: The sarcolemma is connective tissue holding the myofibrils together. The T system consists of tubules. Both actin and myosin have cross-bridges. There is no endoplasmic reticulum.

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21. Which of the following occurs when muscles contract: The H zone disappears. Myosin slides past actin. Actin breaks down ATP. Sarcomeres increase in length. Calcium is taken up by the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

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22. Which statement about sarcomere contraction is incorrect? The A bands shorten. The H zones shorten. The I bands shorten. The sarcomeres shorten.

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23. Which two groups of muscles would have motor units with the lowest innervation ratio: ocular muscles that move the eyes, muscles of the leg, muscles of the trunk, or muscles that move the fingers?

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24. Impulses that move down the T system of a muscle fiber are most directly responsible for: splitting of ATP, attachment of the cross-bridges to myosin, release of Ca+ ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, or movement of tropomyosin?

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25. Concerning cross-bridges, select the false statement(s) from among the following: Cross-bridges are composed of myosin. They bind to ATP after they detach from actin.They contain ATPase. They split ATP before they attach to actin.

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26. Which of the following is a description of what occurs at a neuromuscular junction: nerve impulses cause the release of acetylcholine, nerve impulses cause the T system to touch sarcomeres, or nerve impulses cause calcium ions to enter the sarcolemma?

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27. What is being described: a single muscle contraction that lasts only a fraction of a second? A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that it innervates?

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A.

B.

28. What is being described: the response of a muscle unit to a stimulus is complete, and not partial?

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29. What is being described:many impulses stimulate a muscle before a muscle has time to relax?

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30. What is recruitment? (B) Under what conditions would this type of muscle contraction be undesirable?

Answer:A.

B.

 

31. Select from among the following, the ATP activity that requires oxygen: fermentation, cellular respiration, or creatine phosphate breakdown?

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32. What is the endproduct of glycolytic fermentation? (B) What is an undesirable effect of this product should it build up in muscle cells?

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A.

B.

33. Identify the following description: the amount of oxygen needed to replenish the supply following anaerobic activity or demand.

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34. Select from among the following, the quickest method of providing ATP for muscle activity: aerobic respiration, oxidative respiration, creatine respiration, or creatine phosphate conversion?

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35. Which of the following could be a possible detrimental side effect from using anabolic steroids: liver dysfunction (jaundice),aggressive behavior, kidney disease, or hypertension, violent mood swings, male impotence?

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36. Creatine phosphate conversion, fermentation and cellular respiration all produce the energy-rich molecule called ATP. In what way are fermentation and creatine phosphate conversion different from cellular respiration?

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37. Select from the following the one(s) is/are not associated with the muscular system's contribution to overall homeostasis: cardiac muscle propels blood, smooth muscles peristalsis in the digestive tract, or skeletal muscles protecting internal organs?

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38. How does the muscular system aid the lymphatic system?

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39. Proper functioning of a neuromuscular junction requires the presence of which of the following: presence of acetylcholine sarcolemma of a muscle cell, presence of a synaptic cleft, or the presence of a motor terminal?

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40. Which of these energy relationships are mismatched? oxygen deficit ---anaerobic, fermentation --- anaerobic, creatine phosphate --- anaerobic, or cellular respiration--- aerobic?

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41. Compare fast-and slow-twitch twitch muscle fibers.

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42. Regarding number 41 above, give two sport activities that would be examples of each type of muscle fiber.

43. How does a strain differ from a sprain?

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44.What is the cause of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. How is it inherited?

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45. What kind of muscular disease is myasthenia gravis? Why does this disease occur?

Answer:

A.

B.