BIO 1030: Chapter 8: Digestive System/Nutrition - Study Guide Number 8

 

1. In tracing the path of food in the following list, which step is the first to be out of order: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, small intestine, stomach, large intestine?

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2. To which one of the following does the appendix connect: Cecum, small intestine, esophagus, large intestine, or liver?

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3. Which association is incorrect? Mouth - starch digestion; esophagus - protein digestion; small intestine - starch, lipid, protein digestion; stomach-food storage liver, production of bile?

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4. What is being descried: the muscular tube that passes foodstuffs from the mouth to the stomach?

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5. Identify the organ that functions in storage and elimination of feces.

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6. Which of the following is an explanation as to why a person cannot swallow food and talk at the same time? In order to swallow, the epiglottis must close off the trachea.The brain cannot control two activities at the same time. In order to speak, air must come through the larynx to form sounds. A swallowing reflex is only initiated when the mouth is closed.

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7. Identify the term for the description that follows: : the rhythmic, wavelike contractions of the GI tract that allows movement of foodstuffs from the esophagus to the anus? Where does it begin? End?

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8. What name is used to identify the muscles that encircle tubes (at both the beginning /ends of the stomach) and at the end of the rectum?

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9. Which association is incorrect? pancreas -produces alkaline secretions and enzymes; salivary glands - produce saliva and amylase; gallbladder - produces digestive enzymes; or liver-produces bile?

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10. Which one of the following chemical molecules could be absorbed directly into the blood stream without the need of chemical digestion: fat, protein, polysaccharide, glucose or nucleic acid?

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11. An organ is a structure made of two or more tissues performing a common function. Which of the four tissue types are present in the wall of the digestive tract? (BE CAREFUL) TISSUES WERE DISCUSSED IN CHPT. 4.

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12. Identify the following by name: (A)the outermost layer of the wall of the esophagus: (B)The innermost layer in the wall of the digestive tract that is a mucus secreting epithelium.(C)The outermost layer in the wall of the digestive tract that is a serous secreting epithelium? (D)The broad band of loose connective tissue in the wall of the digestive tract that contains blood vessels, lymph, and nerves?

Answer:A				B				C					D

13. Which association is not correct: protein - trypsin; fat - bile; fat - lipase; maltose - pepsin; or starch - amylase?

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14. Which of the following is a correct statement? HCl activates pepsin. Mucus is a protective secretion in the stomach. The stomach absorbs alcohol. Helicobacter pyloric causes gastric ulcers.

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15. Which one of the following is an accurate description of where most of the products of digestion are absorbed across the fore entering the bloodstream: squamous epithelium of the esophagus, striated walls of the trachea, convoluted walls of the stomach, fingerlike villi of the small intestine, or smooth wall of the large intestine?

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16. Which one of the following is an accurate description of bile: is an important enzyme for the digestion of fats, cannot be stored, is made by the gallbladder, or emulsifies fats?

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17. Which one of the following activities, is not a function of the liver in adults? Produce bile. Stores glucose. Detoxifies alcohol. Produces urea. Makes red blood cells.

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18. What is being described: the digestive organ that functions to store food, kill bacteria, and partially digests protein?

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19. What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

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20. Among the following descriptions, which would accurately describe the large intestine? Digests all types of food, is the longest part of the intestinal tract, absorbs water, is connected to the stomach, or is subject to hepatitis?

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21. Chemical digestion of starch is confined to what two organs of the digestive tract?

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22. Identify the only organ where fat digestion occurs and the enzyme that accomplishes this process?

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23. What factors are primarily responsible for regulating or controlling digestive secretions? HINT: TWO MAJOR FACTORS

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24. Identify from among the following human digestive enzymes, the one that does not match its substrate: pepsin - protein; trypsin -nucleic acids; salivary amylase - starch; lipase - fat; maltase - maltose; sucrase - sucrose; lactase - proteins; trypsin - lactose?

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25. Identify what is being described: small lymphatic capillaries that are located in the small intestine and absorb fats?

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26. What is about to be described: small growths arising from the epithelial lining of the colon?

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27. Choose the following that is not a function of the liver: Detoxifies blood and stores iron. Makes plasma proteins. Stores glycogen and regulates cholesterol. Produces urea from amino acids.

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28. Given the following KEY: MOUTH, ESOPHAGUS, STOMACH, SMALL INTESTINE, LARGE INTESTINE, match each function to an organ in the key.

a. Stores food.

b. Absorbs nutrients.

c. Stores non digestible remains.

d. Serves as a passageway.

e. Receives food.

Answer:	A				B				C				D			E		

29. Which of the following is recommended for avoiding osteoporosis: calcium supplements, or vitamin D?

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30. Identify the following: having a morbid fear of gaining weight, causing the person to be on a very restrictive diet?

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31. Identify the following: having a body weight 20% or more above the ideal weight?

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32. How many small servings of meat are sufficient in the daily diet?

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33. Which one of the following is an accurate description of essential amino acids? Can be produced by the body, are only needed occasionally, are stored in the body until needed, or must be present in the diet?

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34. Which one of the following is often organic portions of important coenzymes: minerals, vitamins, protein, or carbohydrates?

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35. What is/are the major features of bulimia nervosa? HINT: CITE THREE.

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36. Which of the following is an accurate description of the products of digestion? They are large macromolecules needed by the body. They are enzymes needed to digest food. They are the foods that we eat. They regulate hormones of various kinds. They are small nutrient molecules that can be absorbed into the general circulation.

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37. Use the following key: gastrin, secretin, CCK, all of these, none of these to match the statements that follow.HINT: Answers are used more than once. Some may have more than one answer.

a. Hormone carried in the bloodstream.

b. Secreted by the duodenum.

c. Secreted by the stomach.

d. Stimulates gallbladder to release bile.

e. Stimulates the stomach to digest protein.

f. Enzyme that digests food.

Answer:	A					B				C			D			E			F	

 

 

38. What is lactose intolerance?

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39. A) What is jaundice? B) Are there various kinds? Explain your answer(s).

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A)

B) :

40. The amino acids that must be consumed in the diet are called essential. So, Which of the following wou8ld describe a nonessential amino acid: are stored in the body until needed, are only needed occasionally, can be found in the diet; the body cannot synthesize these amino acids, or can be produced by the body?

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