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BIO 1030 - Respiratory System: Study Guide Number 9

1. Identify each of the following structure based upon its function: the flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the trachea?

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2. List the three air-conditioning activities that modify air before it reaches the lungs.

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3. Which, if any, of the following is anatomically incorrect? The larynx contains the vocal cords. The trachea enters the lungs. The lungs contains many alveoli, or air sacs. The nose has two nasal cavities. The pharynx connects the nasal and oral cavities to the larynx.

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4. Which of the following accomplishes filtering in the respiratory system: mucus, nasal hairs, or cilia?

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5. Identify what is about to be described: the maximum volume of air that can be moved in and out of the lungs during a single breath?

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6. Respiratory gaseous exchange occurs through (small arteries, small veins, arterioles, or capillaries)?

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7. Which of the following refers to internal respiration: the movement of air into the lungs, the exchange of gases between alveolar air and the blood in the lungs, cellular respiration, resulting in the production of ATP, or the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluid?

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8. Where does the chemical reaction that converts carbon dioxide to a bicarbonate ion occur?

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9. At what level(s) is A. the partial pressure of Oxygen highest? Lowest? B. the pH highest? the pH lowest? C. the temperature highest? the temperature lowest? D. partial pressure of carbon dioxide the highest? the lowest?

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10. What is the diaphragm? Where is it located? What is its function in respiration?

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11. Which of the following, if any, involves inspiration: flattening of the diaphragm, expansion of the rib cage(rib cage moves up and out.), contraction of the diaphragm (moves down), relaxation of the rib cage, pressure in lungs decreases, and air comes rushing in, or the lungs expand because air comes rushing in?

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12. A) What is being described: an amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs? B) About how much volume of air is this?

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A)

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13. What, if any, can happen if air enters the intrapleural space (space between the pleura)?

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14. Identify the gas that diffuses from the tissues to the blood.

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15. Within the alveoli or air sacs, in which direction does the concentration gradient of carbon dioxide favor diffusion of carbon dioxide?

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16. What is the role of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase?

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17. Trace the path of air from the nose to the lungs(meaning the alveoli).

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18. Name and describe the two phase of respiration (gas exchange).

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19. Which of the following is/are true regarding carbon dioxide and oxygen? Both exit and enter the blood in the lungs and tissues. Both are carried by hemoglobin. Both are present only in arteries and not in veins. Both are given off by mitochondria.

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20. Where are vocal cords located? What role do they play in sound production?

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21. Hemoglobin is useful because it does which of the following? transports oxygen, transports carbon dioxide, helps to act as a buffer to maintain a stable pH.

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22. How does hemoglobin operate to keep the pH of the blood constant?

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23. Identify the name and the chemical nature of the substance that forms a film covering the alveoli thereby, serving to keep the lung tissue from collapsing.

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24. Which of the following make(s) it difficult for a person with asthma to exhale? The diaphragm does not relax. The bronchioles constrict. The lungs do not inflate.The trachea constricts.

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25. Among the following, which one(s) is/are caused by smoking: cancer and emphysema, pneumonia and tuberculosis, or bronchitis?

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26. Which of the following is/are true? In humans, the respiratory center is stimulated by carbon dioxide, controls the rate of breathing, is located in the medulla oblongata?

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27. TRUE or FALSE (Somewhat related to number 9)

a. The Po2, temperature, and pH are higher in the lungs.

b. The Po2, temperature, and pH are lower in the lungs.

c. The Po2 and temperature are higher and the pH is lower in the lungs.

d. The Po2 and temperature are lower and the pH is higher in the lungs.

e. The Po2 and pH are higher, but the temperature is lower in the lungs.

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28. Air enters the human lung because of which of the following factors, or conditions? ATM pressure is lower than the pressure inside the lungs. ATM pressure is greater than the pressure inside of the lungs. Although the pressures are the same inside and outside, the partial pressure of oxygen is lower within the lungs. The residual air in the lungs causes the partial pressure of oxygen to lower than it is on the outside.

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29. Which of the following is not an obstructive pulmonary disorder? Emphysema, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, asthma, or a disorder that keeps air from flowing freely into and out of the lungs?

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30. In questions 13-17, on page 185, match each description with a structure in the key. (PLEASE DO NOT USE ALPHABETS.)

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31. Give the location and role that is played by the following in respiration: carotid and aortic bodies.

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32. Describe nervous control of breathing: events leading to inspiration/expiration.

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33. Where, (in particular)within the hemoglobin molecule, does the oxygen loosely combines?

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34. Label diagram # 28 on page 186. R

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35. A) What is the difference between inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume? B) Approximately how much (by volume ) of gas is represented by each of the measured volumes of gas?

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36. What is vital capacity? Name two diseases that could decrease vital capacity.

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