BIO 210: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

SELF-DIRECTED STUDY #12: CHAPTER 12 - AIR AND POLLUTION

Introduction

1. What is a lichen in terms of mutualism?

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2. Of what benefit to the environment are lichens?

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3. State three reasons why lichens are able to track air pollution to its source.

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Section 12.1

4. List in order the correct sequence of layers of the atmosphere from the innermost to the outermost.

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5. On what basis is the atmosphere divided into spherical layers?

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6. Regarding the atmosphere, where does most of Earth's weather occur?

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7. You send up a weather balloon that monitors temperature changes in the atmosphere. Initially, the temperature drops as the balloon rises. Suddenly, there is a reversal and the temperature starts to rise. Based upon the information given, identify the boundary that the events occurred.

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8. Relative to the amount of gas present, how does troposphere differ from the stratosphere?

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9. Cite three functions of stratospheric ozone.

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Section 12.2

10. Among the following terms: carbon oxides, smog, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxide, which one does not belong? On what basis did you make your decision?

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11. What do the following have in common: methane, chlorofluorocarbon and benzene? What do the following have in common: hydrogen peroxide, perozyacyl nitrates (PANs) and aldehydes, such as formaldehyde? What do the following have in common: dust and soot, pesticides, and sulfuric acid?

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Section 12.3

12. Name three ingredients that must be present in order for photochemical smog to exist.

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13. Under what condition does photochemical smog form?

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14. Which one of the following climates would favor the formation of photocheical smog: cool, wet, and cloudy; cool, dry, and sunny; warm, dry, and sunny; or warm, wet, and cloudy?

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15. What is the source of gray-air smog?

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16. The frequency and severity of smog in an area is dependent upon many factors. List three such factors.

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17. A thermal inversion is the result of what environmental factors?

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18. Identify three areas that would most likely experience a temperature inversion.

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19. What is the city of Los Angeles known for in this chapter?

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20. How is acid deposition properly defined?

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21. What kinds of soils are most vulnerable to acid deposition?

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22. How is acid rain rated by most experts?

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23. What is the pH of typical rain in the eastern United States? In general, at what pH does acid deposition tend to have harmful effects for terrestrial ecosystems?

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24. Acid deposition has been linked to several environmental damages. Cite three.

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25. Name three strategies that can be used to reduce acid deposition.

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26. To what is acid shock that damages aquatic life in the Northern Hemisphere related?

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Section 12.5

27. How do experts rate indoor air pollution?

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28. What are three unhealthy links to Sick Building Syndrome?

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29. According to the EPA, what percentage of all U. S. buildings are considered "sick" from indoor air pollution?

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30. What do the following have in common: cigarette smoke, radon-222 and asbestos?

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31. Pipe insulation and vinyl ceiling and floor tiles are most likely to be the source of which of the following: chloroform, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, or asbestos?

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32. Name three unhealthy effects that could result from exposure to indoor formaldehyde.

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33. TRUE/FALSE: Radioactive radon is a product of uranium decay and is an indoor air pollutant.

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34. TRUE/FALSE: Radon-222 is basically a problem in confined spaces,such as basements, and underground wells over radon-containing deposits.

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35. What is significant about the following readings: a radon test of a home shows a level of 1 picocurie/liter? a radon test of a home reveals a reading level of 250 picocuriew/liters?

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Section 12.6

36. Name three body defenses that serve to protect humans from air pollution.

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37. Select from among the following choices, the group that is least vulnerable to air pollution: infants, elderly people, adult males, people with heart and respiratory disease.

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38. Identify three sources of carbon monoxide.

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39. From a health point of view, what are fine and ultrafine suspended particles? By what means are they emitted? (name three ways.)

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