Self-Directed Study: Chapter 4.Ecosystems: Component Energy Flow
1. If one wanted to learn more about how birds interact with each other, all other forms of life, including the nonliving environment, which branch of biology would be most suited?
2. Which one of the following is the general goal of ecology: eliminating pollution, eliminating environmental degradation, tracing the flow of energy through the environment, or learning about connections in nature?
3. A group of lying fox bats living in a particular forest of Australia is an example of which ecological level of organization?
4. Pick from among the following terms the one word that includes all of the others: community, biome, species, population.
5. What is asexual reproduction? Cite one example.
6. What is the difference between niche and habitat?
7. What is the profession of a microbiologist?
8. What level of biological organization represents the basic unit of life?
9. Briefly, distinguish the following: atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere
10. How does a biological community differ from an ecosystem?
11. What is a synonym for biosphere?
12. Life, as we know on earth, depends on the interaction of two environmental factors. Identify the two.
13. TRUE/FALSE: Energy recycles through the ecosystem while nutrients (materials) flow in only one direction.
14. What is the major chemical component of the sun?
15. Pick the one statement from among the following that is false:
A. Less than 1% of sunlight is captured via photosynthesis.
B. About one-quarter of the solar energy hitting the earth is immediately reflected back to space.
C. About one-quarter of the solar energy hitting the earth warms the land and lower atmosphere, runs cycles of matter, and generates winds.
D. A spectrum of electromagnetic radiation emanates from the sun
16. When incoming solar radiation is converted to hat, it is least likely to be trapped in the atmosphere by which gas?
17. What is the major factor that determines the types and abundance of life in a particular land area?
18. Cite two examples of abiotic factors within an ecosystem.
19. Pick from among the following terms, the one that is least likely to limit growth of a population in a land ecosystem. In an aquatic ecosystem: salinity, dissolved oxygen, water, temperature, soil nutrients, precipitation.
20. Identify the most inclusive components of the biotic portion of an ecosystem?
21. Distinguish the following: heterotophs and autotrophs, and give two examples of each.
22. What does the process of photosynthesis use? Produce?
23. What is photosynthesis? How is it similar to chemosynthesis? How do the two processes differ?
24. Distinguish the following and give one example of each: herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritus feeders.
25. What do the following have in common: herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and detritus feeders?
26. How does a primary consumer differ from a secondary consumer?
27. What is a producer?
28. Cite three different examples of scavengers.
29. Read the following scenario, and then identify (in proper order)each feeding level represented. In a field, it was observed that a lion chased, killed and ate gazelle. It was later noticed that a vulture was picking away at the left over meat scraps. At a later observation, crabs were noticed attacking the remaining fragments. About a month later, it was observed that bacteria were completing the breakdown and recycling any organic material.
30. Define the following term and cite two distinct examples: decomposers.
31. Of all the ecological terms mentioned in the chapter, which one is necessary for an ecosystem to survive?
32. Distinguish the following : species diversity, genetic diversity, biological diversity, and ecological diversity. Which term includes all of the others?
33. Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
34. What are three products that may be produce as a result of anaerobic respiration?
35. Of the two major kinds of respiration, which one is responsible for the manufacture of alcoholic beverages?
36. How would you classify the following: Carpenter ants, termites, earthworms, and wood beetles?
37. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?
38. Why is it most desirable for a food chain to be short rather than long?
39. What happens to most of the energy input in a food chain?
40. Construct a food chain that consist of the following levels: producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer and a tertiary consumer.
41. About how much energy is transferred from an organism on one trophic level to the next trophic level. How much is lost as heat, or unusable energy?
42. What is being described: the energy output of a specified area of producers over a given period of time?
43. Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest productivity? The highest productivity? savanna, swamps and marshes, open ocean, lakes and streams?
44. Select from among the following, the one that an ecosytem can survive without: autotrophs, producers, consumers, or decomposers?
45. Select from among the following the one that would be considered a tertiary consumer: condor, phytoplankton, jellyfish, or a zooplankton?
47. In terms of percentage, how much energy is transferred from an organism on one trophic level to the next trophic level?
48. Identify the "ironclad" ecological pyramid with no exception?
49. Among the following ecosystems, which one has the highest net primary productivity: agricultural land, open ocean, swamps and marshes, or temperate forests?
50. Naame five elements that are involved in major biochemical cycles.
51. Identify the water-cycle processes that works against gravity.
52. What are the two environmental factors that drive the hydrologic cycle?
53.. Name three ways that humans strongly affect the hydrologic cycle.
54. What is being described: the amount of water vapor in a certain mass of air? What is being described: sea salt, soil dust, volcanic ash?
55. The transfer of carbon among living things depends primarily upon what two processes?
56. Name two ways in which humans interfere with the carbon cycle.
57. Name the gas that is considered to be a key component of nature's thermostat.
54. Identify the most common gas in the atmosphere.
55. What key element is common to the following: proteins, nitrites, ammonia?
56. What is the role of nitrogen-fixing bacteria? Where would you expect to find these organisms?
57. Name the form of nitrogen that is most usable to plants.
58. Distinguish the following: nitrification, denitrification, ammonification, and assimilation.
59. Name three human behaviors that substantially affect the nitrogen cycle in aquatic systems.
60. What do the following phrases have in common: the cycling of oxygen and carbon, the decomposition of dead organisms, and the food that we eat?
61.What are the two basic principles of ecosystem sustainability?