BIO 210: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

SELF-DIRECTED STUDY #7; CHAPTER 11 THE HUMAN POPULATION: GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION

SECTION 11-1

1. How can the population change in a particular year be calculated?

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2. What is being described: the number of live births per 1,000 persons in a given year?

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3. What happened to the rate of the world's annual population change between 1963 and 2001?

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4. Which of the following statements about the world's population is true? Together, China and India make up 38% of the world's population. The most rapid population growth is taking place in the developing countries. Africa has the highest population growth rate. When the total fertility rate drops below the replacement-level fertility, the population is balanced and stops growing.

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5. What is the average replacement-level fertility for the whole world?

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6. What is the most useful measure of fertility for projecting future population change?

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7. For how long has the birth rate in this country been below or at replacement level?

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8. When did the fertility rate reach its peak in this country?

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9. Name the industrialized country with the highest teenage pregnancy rate.

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10. List three social factors affecting birth and fertility rates.

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11. Select from among the following, the one that would decrease the likelihood of a couple having a child. The child is part of the family labor pool. Contraceptives are not available. They have no public or private pension. Women have many opportunities to participate in the work force.

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12. A married couple was given the following list of birth control methods: total abstinence, hormonal implant, diaphragm plus spermicidal, condom (good brand). Which would be the most effective method? The least effective method?

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13. A married couple was given the following list of birth control methods: IUD plus spermicide, oral contraceptive, hormonal implant, and rhythm method. Which would be the most effective? The least effective?

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14. Select from among the following forms of birth control, the most unreliable: condom, spermicide, douche, cervical cap.

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15. What is being described: the number of children out of 1,000 that die by their first birthday?

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16. Which of the following reasons help to explain why this country hs one of the highest infant mortality rates of developed countries: high birth rate for teenage women, lack of adequate prenatal care, the older age of pregnant women as a result of many women delaying having children, or lack of health care for children of he poor after birth?

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17. What are two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region?

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18. What environmental factor is most associated with a high infant morality rate?

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SECTION 11-2

19. What is the age structure of a population?

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20. What are the categories that divide population age structure?

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21. What is the value or usefulness of age structure diagrams?

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22. Describe the age structure of countries that have obtained ZPG. Are there any such countries? If so, name them.

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23. Describe the age structure diagram for rapidly growing countries.

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24. Pick from among the following, the one that implies the greatest built-in momentum for population growth: a large population size, a large number of people under age 34, a large number of people under age 15, or a large number of people age 29-44?

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25. What is a baby
boomer?

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26. Give one reason why a
baby boomer is least likely to take voluntary early retirement.

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27. Which of the following would countries experiencing rapid population decline expect a rise in the proportion of the population? (A) Those that are on social security. (B) Those that are consuming a large fraction of medical services. (C) Those who are older people.

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SECTION 11-3

28. Select from among the list that follows the one country that does not accept large numbers of immigrants: Australia, Canada, the United States, or Mexico?

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29. What percentage of the US population growth in 2001 was due to illegal immigration?

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30. What is being described: the decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates when a country becomes industrialized?

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31. True or False? The demographic transition model helps to explain why death rates fall before birth rates. The change that takes place in a demographic transition occurs when the economic development of a country changes the population growth pattern.

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32. What are three features of a basic family-planning policy in most countries?

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33. What are the findings regarding women who are feeding their infant only with breast milk?

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34. Name three strategies that governments use in an attempt to reduce population growth.

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35. Under what conditions do women tend to have fewer and healthier children? (THREE CONDITIONS)

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36. What percentage of the world's land is possessed by women? Women receive what percentage of the world's income?

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SECTION 11-5

37. Based on experience, how can population growth be slowed?

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38. Name three goals of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development.

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SECTION 11-6

39. In terms of population, how is an urban area defined?

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40. What is a megacity? As of the date of the textbook publication, how many megacities are there? In order to qualify as a metropolitan city, what must be the minimum population of a city? How many such cities does the United States have?

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41. What is being described: consist of poor people living in makeshift shelters?

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42. Site three reasons why people migrate to cities.

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43. What are two causative factors given to account for urban growth that is occurring in developing countries?

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44. With regards to East, West, North, and South, in which direction is the United States population shifting?

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45. Since 1920, urban areas have seen improvements in many areas. List three such areas.

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46. This country has experienced many shifts in internal human populations. What has been the most recent shift in U. S. internal human populations?

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47. What is urban sprawl? List three factors that lead to urban sprawl.

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SECTION 11-7

48. Today's cities are not self-sustaining because they import what major supplies?

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49. What percentage of the world's population are urban dwellers? What percentage of the planet's land area is occupied by urban dwellers? In order to meet the demands of urban dwellers, has required using or disturbing what percentage of the earth's habitable land area?

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50. What is the most widespread occupational hazard in the United States?

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