BIO 210: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

SELF-DIRECTED STUDY - CHAPTER 13: CLIMATE CHANGE AND OZONE LOSS

Section 13.2

1. Since 1860 what has been the average global temperature rise in degree(s) Centigrade?

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2. Of the major greenhouse gases, which one has not increased in recent decades?

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3. List three sources or activities that have caused an increase in greenhouse gases.

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4. Which one of the following is not a major climate model projection?

A. a 1.0 - 3.5-degree centigrade rise in Earth's mean surface temperature by 2100

B. an Earth warmer than at any time in the last 10,000 years

C. homestead farming in Antarctica

D. increased retreat of some glaciers on the tops of mountains in the Northern Cascades

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Section 13.6

5. TRUE/FALSE: The formation of the ozone layer enabled life on land to evolve. CFCs are odorless and stable. CFCs are nonflammable, nontoxic, and noncorrosive. Fluorine atoms are most responsible for the breakdown of ozone to molecular oxygen.

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6. What do the following have in common: air conditioners, aerosol spray cans and sterilants for hospital equipment?

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7. The story of the discovery of the effects of CFCs and the political response to that knowledge best illustrates which one of the following components of complex systems: synergistic interaction, lag time, positive feedback loop, or negative feedback loop?

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8. TRUE/FALSE

A. Over 44 years passed from the first production of CFCs until the first awareness that they could cause environmental damage.

B. CFCs are stable,odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic, and noncorrosive chemicals.

C. CFCs are found in bubbles in Styrofoam and insulation.

D. CFCs are vital because they help screen out UV radiation from reaching reaching Earth's surface.

9. How long was it between the first warnings about CFCs from the scientific community and a response to reduce CFCs from the political community?

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10. What do the following have in common: methyl bromide, halons, and methyl chloroform?

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11. Approximately how long does it take CFCs to reach the stratosphere?

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12. Name three ways that CFCs are released into the atmosphere.

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13. What is the single greatest contributor to CFC emissions in this country?

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14. What is significant about the following percentage range: 40 - 50?

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15. TRUE/FALSE

A. The ozone hole is largest in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

B. 10-38% ozone loss has been reported in the Arctic springtime.

C. Up to 50% of the ozone over Antarctica is destroyed each year.

D. The largest annual decrease in ozone over the South Pole is caused by spinning vortices with clouds of ice crystals with absorbed CFCs on their surfaces.

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16. What are three consequences(increases) of increases in ultraviolet radiation?

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17. The fact that increased skin cancer rates may not show up for 15-40 years following ozone depletion illustrates which one of the following: lag time, suppression of the immune system, negative feedback loop, or positive feedback loop?

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18. Damage to the ecological structure and function of lakes because of deeper penetration of UV light is cause by what factor, or interplay?

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