Modern European Cultural History

Northern Humanism, the Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism, The Western Humanities, Chapter 13.

1. Summarize the intellectual, political, economic, and cultural setting or context in which the Northern Renaissance took place.  Pay particular attention to similarities or dissimilarities between northern Europe and Renaissance Italy.

2. What are the essential elements of Christian Humanism and how did this northern European movement of thought resemble and differ from Italian Humanism (represented, for example, by Pico della Mirandola).

3. Describe the literature of the Northern Renaissance, paying particular attention to the works of Michel de Montaigne and William Shakespeare.

4. Albrecht Dürer and Matthias Grünewald are two of the greatest German artists of the Northern Renaissance.  Identify, in terms of both content and style, the characteristics of their art.  Pay particular attention to Dürer’s Knight, Death, and the Devil and Grünewald’s Isenheim Altarpiece.

5. Describe the artistic contributions of Hieronymus Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder.

6. Martin Luther, a scholar argues, “changed the map of Europe, . . . redirected the way people thought of themselves, their fellows, and the world about them.”  What was the nature of the religious changes brought by Luther.  Why did they occur?  What impact did the Reformation set in motion by Luther have on the arts, religious as well as secular?  What other “Reformations” (Protestant as well as Catholic) took place in the wake of Luther’s Reformation?

7. Describe the characteristics of Late Mannerism in Spain and Italy, especially in the work of El Greco and Tintoretto.

8. What was the legacy of Northern Humanism, the Northern Renaissance, Religious Reformations, and Late Mannerism?

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