The Humanistic Tradition I

From the Ancient World to The Reformation

The Humanistic Tradition:  Study Questions.
Chapter 19: Protest and Reform: The Waning of the Old Order.

1. What are the characteristics of Northen or Christian Humanism?  How is it related to Italian Humanism?  Examine the contributions of Desiderius Erasmus, Thomas More, Miguel de Cervantes, or Michel de Montaigne.

2. Martin Luther did not “cause” the Protestant Reformation, but it did set it off by posting the Ninety-five Theses in Wittenberg in 1517.  What prepared the ground for Luther’s challenge? What did Luther want to accomplish (read the excerpt from his Address to the German Nobility)?  Where did Protestantism spread and why so rapidly?  What impact has the Reformation had on European (and World) History?

3. Describe the major characteristics of Northern Renaissance art.  Illustrate your points with examples from the works of Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald, Hieronymus Bosch, and Pieter Brueghel the Elder.

4. Evaluate the impact of the Protestant Reformation on the arts.  Cite specific examples of paintings, buildings, music, and literature.

5. William Shakespeare is often considered along with the Northern Renaissance writers, even though he lived and wrote after most of them.  What characteristics of Shakespeare’s work make him a man of the Renaissance?

6. In what ways did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?  Is the term “renaissance” appropriate for what was happening in the North during the 16th century?  Support your opinion with specific examples from the text.

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Last Update:  23.VIII.2006

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