Revolution, Liberalism, and Nationalism in Europe, 1789-1914
Europe, 1851-1871: The Era of Unification Movements
I. The Crimean War, 1854-1856.A. Origins: The Challenge to the Vienna Settlement.II. The Second Empire, France, 1852-1870.
B. Great Power Interests and the Immediate Causes of the War.
C. The War.
D. The Peace of Paris, 1856. Disruption of the Vienna Settlement.A. Policies of Napoleon III.III. The Unification of Italy, 1859-1861.
B. The Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871.A. Pressures for Unification, 1815-1859.IV. The Unification of Germany.
B. Camillo Cavour and Piedmont Sardinia.
C. The Awakening of Italy: Giuseppe Garibaldi and the March on Rome, 1860.A. Origins and the Vormarz -- The German Confederation, 1815-1848.V. Conclusion: The Significance of the Unification Movements.
B. Prussia: Origins to 1862.
C. Prussia: The Policies of Bismarck, 1863-1866.
D. Steps Toward Unification, 1863-1871.1. The Polish Crisis, 1863.
2. The Schleswig-Holstein Crisis, 1863.
3. The Austro-Prussian Crisis, 1866.
4. The Franco-Prussian Crisis, 1870-1871.
5. Proclamation of the Second German Empire, Versailles, 18 Jan 1871.
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Last Update: 21.III.2005
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