Revolution, Liberalism, and Nationalism in Europe, 1789-1914

Europe, 1851-1871: The Era of Unification Movements

I. The Crimean War, 1854-1856.
A. Origins: The Challenge to the Vienna Settlement.

B. Great Power Interests and the Immediate Causes of the War.

C. The War.

D. The Peace of Paris, 1856. Disruption of the Vienna Settlement.

II. The Second Empire, France, 1852-1870.
A. Policies of Napoleon III.

B. The Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871.

III. The Unification of Italy, 1859-1861.
A. Pressures for Unification, 1815-1859.

B. Camillo Cavour and Piedmont Sardinia.

C. The Awakening of Italy:  Giuseppe Garibaldi and the March on Rome, 1860.

IV. The Unification of Germany.
A. Origins and the Vormarz -- The German Confederation, 1815-1848.

B. Prussia: Origins to 1862.

C. Prussia: The Policies of Bismarck, 1863-1866.

D. Steps Toward Unification, 1863-1871.

1. The Polish Crisis, 1863.

2. The Schleswig-Holstein Crisis, 1863.

3. The Austro-Prussian Crisis, 1866.

4. The Franco-Prussian Crisis, 1870-1871.

5. Proclamation of the Second German Empire, Versailles, 18 Jan 1871.

V. Conclusion:  The Significance of the Unification Movements.

This Page is maintained by Robert W. Brown

Last Update: 21.III.2005

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