Revolution, Liberalism, and Nationalism in Europe, 1789-1914

The Origins of World War I

I. Introduction.

II. Long-range Causes of the War, 1871-1914.

A. The Unification of Italy and Germany.

B. Loss of Flexibility Within the European State-System.

C. Nationalism: Great Power and Ethnic Varieties.

D. Imperialistic Conflicts and Aggressive Nationalism.

E. Acceptance of a Philosophy of Struggle.

F. New Weapons and Arms Races.

III. Creation of the Major Alliance Systems, 1871-1907.
A. The Triple Alliance (1882).

B. The Triple Entente (1907).

IV. Testing and Solidification of the Alliance Systems, 1907-1914.
A. Crises in the Balkans, 1908-1914.

B. The Moroccan Crises.

C. The Balkan Wars, 1912-1913.

V. The July Crisis, 28 June 1914-28 July 1914.
A. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, 28 June 1914.

B. The "Blank Check," 5-6 July 1914.

C. Austria's Ultimatum to Serbia.

D. The Austria Declaration of War, 28 July 1914.

VI. How a Balkan Crisis Became a World War, 28 July-4 August 1914.

VII. Conclusion: The Matter of War Guilt.

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Last Update: 10.XII.2004

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