Twentieth-Century Europe

War, Revolution, Recovery, and Economic Depression

Europe, 1918-1929

I. Revolutionary Stirrings in Europe, 1917-1920.

    A. The Russian Revolutions of 1917.

    B. Revolutionary Pressures Within the Defeated Powers.

        1. Germany, 1918-1919.

        2. Austria-Hungary Disintegrates, 1918-1919.

    C. Revolutionary Pressures Within the Victorious Powers.

    D. The Revolutionary Tide Recedes.

    E. The Third International, 1919.

II. The Versailles Peace Conference, January-June 1919.

    A. Constraints on Conference Delegates.

        1. The Historical Setting.

        2. War Aims, the Fourteen Points, & Treaties and Promises.

        3. National Interests of the Great Powers.

        4. Fear of Bolshevism.

    B. The Settlement: The Five Treaties.

        1. The Covenant of the League of Nations.

        2. Western Europe.

        3. Eastern Europe.

    C. An Assessment of the Versailles Settlement.

III. The Versailles System in Practice, 1919-1929.

    A. The Years of Coercion, 1919-1924.

        1. France and the Search for French Hegemony.

        2. The Matter of Reparations.

        3. The Ruhr Crisis, 1923.

    B. The Years of Conciliation, 1924-1929.

        1. The Dawes Plan, 1924.

        2. Diplomatic Efforts to Avoid War, 1924-1928.

        3. The Failure to Disarm.

IV. The Western Democracies, 1919-1929.

    A. Great Britain.

    B. France: The Third Republic.

    C. Weimar Germany.

V. Eastern and Southern Europe, 1919-1929.

    A. The Emergence of New States.

    B. Problems Facing the New States.

        1. Rural Predominance.

        2. National/Ethnic Minorities.

    C. Fascist Italy: Mussolini Comes to Power, 1922.

    D. Russia in the 1920s.

VI. Conclusion: Europe in 1929: The Eve of the Depression.



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