Twentieth-century Europe

Intellectual Life and Culture Between the Wars

I. The Crisis in European Thought, 1871-1914.

    A. Friedrich Nietzsche and the Death of God.

    B. The Challenge to Christianity.

    C. The Challenge to Traditional Science.

    D. Darwin, Freud, and the Nature of Man.

    E. Rationalism Questioned.

    F. Nationalism/Social Darwinism/Racism.

    G. A Revolution in the Visual Arts.

II. World War I and the Intellectuals.

III. High Culture in Europe Between the Wars.

    A. Literature: Franz Kafka (The Castle and The Trial).

    B. The Visual Arts: Dada, Surrealism, and Other Movements.

    C. The Lure of Communism: "The God that Failed."

    D. Existentialism: The Philosophy of Anxiety and Uncertainty.

IV. Conclusion: The Modern Predicament.

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Last Up-date: 23.III.99

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