Twentieth-Century Europe

The Recovery of Europe and The Spread of the Cold War, 1949-1990

I. Western Europe in the aftermath of World War II.

    A. Political and Economic Recovery.

    B. The Move Toward European Integration.

    C. The European Welfare State.

II. The Cold War Spreads, 1949-1953.

    A. The Communist Victory in China, 1945-1949.

    B. The Korean War, 1950-1953.

    C. The First Vietnam War, 1945-1954.

    D. Regional Defense Pacts.

III. A Momentary Thaw, 1953-1961.

    A. Thermonuclear Weapons.

    B. Europe, from the Death of Stalin to the 1956 Revolts.

    C. The Middle East Crises (1948-19--).

    D. The U-2 Incident.

    E. Decolonization.

IV. The 1960s: Years of Danger.

    A. The Sino-Soviet Split.

    B. The Berlin Wall (1961).

    C. The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).

    D. The Second Vietnam War, 1965-1975.

V. The Beginnings of Détente, 1960s-1970s.

    A. The Hot Line (1963).

    B. The Test Ban Treaty (1963).

    C. Arms Control Negotiations.
    D. Mixed Signals in Europe.

        1. The Prague Spring (1968).

        2. Germany: Willy Brandt and Ostpolitik.

        3. The Helsinki Conference (1975).

VI. The End of the Cold War: A More Complex World, 1970s-1980s.

    A. The Collapse of the Cold War Alliances.

        1. The Western "Cold War Consensus" Disintegrates.

        2. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.

    B. The End of Detente, 1980s.

        1. Soviet-American Distrust Increases.

        2. The Presidency of Ronald Reagan (1980-1988).

        3. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-1992): Glasnost and Peristroika.

        4. Arms Negotiations.

    C. Revolution in Eastern Europe (1989-1990).

    D. The Collapse of the Soviet Union.

    E. Problems Facing the U. S.

VII. Conclusion: Prospects For the Future.

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Last Up-date: 29.IV.99

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