The City in European History

Examination I

I. Essay Question (1 Question; 15 Points). Select one (1) of the following questions and answer it fully. The essay should be about two pages in length.  If sources are used, please cite them (use Rampolla or any standard format).  Your essay will be graded on its comprehensiveness, the quality of its argument, and the use of supporting evidence.  Review your essay for spelling and correct English usage.

1. Explain how Roman city planners laid out a new city and why such procedures were followed.

2. Describe the main features of the Roman Forum in the 1st-3rd centuries AD, indicating in addition the reasons for its location and its multiple functions.

3. The Emperors and the ruling elites provided the Roman urban masses with "Bread and Circuses"; explain the purpose of each and how they did so, giving at least two specific examples of "bread and circuses."

4.  Desrcibe the city of Constantinople that western visitors saw in the 10th-12th centuries.  Explain why the sack of Constantinople can be considered a symbolic turning point in urban history.

5.  Describe and explain the relationship between medieval markets and urban growth.

6.  Summarize the role of the church in medieval urban life, illustrating your essay with references to specific buildings other than churches and cathedrals.

7.  Describe the urban environment and the main features of daily life for the common people within a typical medieval city.

8. Describe the development of Paris from Roman times to the reign of Philip Augustus. What key features of the city were established during these early years?

9. Describe the three most important changes made to the city of Paris during the reign of Philip Augustus.  Why were these changes made?

10. Describe the walls erected around Paris by Philip Augustus. What was the material and symbolic significance of these walls? What impact did they have on the urban development of medieval Paris?

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Last update:  25.II.2004

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