Guide to Library Research
Mary Livermore Library
Unit 6: Citing Resources
  • Partial Quotation: In some cases, you may want to use only part of a sentence you found in a source-perhaps just a phrase or even a single word. As with a full quotation, you must place the exact words you borrow within quotation marks. Do not change any of the words that appear within the quotation marks. Unlike full quotations, partial quotations require no additional punctuation other than quotation marks. Simply punctuate the sentence as you normally would, but be sure to place the final period after the parenthetical citation.

  • See the example of a Partial Quotation Hide example

    Original: In short, between the time Mackenzie's book arrived at Monticello and December 1802, Jefferson gave Lewis a college undergraduate's introduction to the liberal arts, North American geography, botany, mineralogy, astronomy, and ethnology.

    Partial Quotation: In Undaunted Courage, Stephen Ambrose explains that "Jefferson gave Lewis a college undergraduate's introduction to the liberal arts, North American geography, botany, mineralogy, astronomy, and ethnology" (77).

  • Paraphrase: Most of the time, the material you find within a source will be valuable primarily for its content, not for the way it is expressed. In such cases, you should use a paraphrase, which is the rephrasing of someone else's information in your own words. To paraphrase without plagiarizing, you must change both the words and the syntax-the way the words fit together in a sentence-of the original. Because you no longer are using the source's exact words, you should not use quotation marks. If the material is purely factual, you generally do not need to give credit to the source. On the other hand, you should give credit to the source if the material you are paraphrasing 1) contains any kind of unique interpretation, 2) presents facts-particularly statistics-that required painstaking investigative work, or 3) includes facts that may elicit curiosity or doubt in your audience.

  • See the example of a Paraphrase Hide example

    Original: In short, between the time Mackenzie's book arrived at Monticello and December 1802, Jefferson gave Lewis a college undergraduate's introduction to the liberal arts, North American geography, botany, mineralogy, astronomy, and ethnology.

    Paraphrase: In Undaunted Courage, Stephen Ambrose explains that Lewis received tutoring in botany, astronomy, and other subjects from Jefferson (77).

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