9-12 English Education



These standards set forth the basic field of knowledge and repertoire of skills necessary to teach English Language Arts successfully. They are organized to reflect the Core Standards for Teachers in North Carolina developed by the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission and adopted by the State Board of Education in November 1999.  Each standard is followed by a series of indicators that address the standard.


Reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing and thinking are vitally related, and learning in one area reinforces learning in other areas. This recursive nature of literacy development demands a spiraling curriculum.  Throughout the standards also runs a commitment to meeting the needs of diverse students and developing life-long learners.




Standard 1:  Teachers know and understand the English language.



Indicator 1: Teachers understand the evolving nature of the English Language.


Indicator 2: Teachers understand the conventions of Standard English, as well as dialect and register variations.


Indicator 3: Teachers understand individual language acquisition and development, recognizing the impact of cultural, economic, political, and social environments upon language.



Standard 2:  Teachers know and understand reading processes.



Indicator 1:   Teachers understand skills and strategies that enhance reading.


Indicator 2:   Teachers understand comprehension strategies.


Indicator 3:   Teachers understand reading theory.



Standard 3:  Teachers know and understand written and oral composing processes.



Indicator 1: Teachers understand how different forms of oral and written discourse can influence thought and action.


Indicator 2: Teachers understand the importance of teaching grammar and usage in context.


Indicator 3: Teachers understand composition theory.



Standard 4:  Teachers know and understand a diverse range of historical and contemporary literatures, including various genres of United States, British, and World, as well as literatures written by women and authors of color and works written for children and young adults.



Indicator 1: Teachers understand works from a range of genres from various periods of British, American, and World literatures.


Indicator 2: Teachers understand ethnic diversity and cultural diversity in literature, including, but not limited to, historically underrepresented groups such as African-American, Native-American, Hispanic, Asian-American, and women authors.


Indicator 3:  Teachers understand the range and value of works written for children and young adults.


Indicator 4: Teachers understand literary theory.



Standard 5:  Teachers understand the range, impact, and influence of technology, print and non-print media in constructing meaning.



Indicator 1: Teachers know how to use electronic resources for research.


Indicator 2: Teachers understand the interaction between technology and culture.


Indicator 3: Teachers understand how media and technology enhance written, oral, and visual communication.



Standard 6:  Teachers use effective strategies and techniques in teaching English Language Arts.



Indicator 1: Teachers organize classroom environments and learning experiences that promote effective whole class, small group, and individual work.


Indicator 2: Teachers develop interdisciplinary teaching strategies and materials.


Indicator 3:   Teachers promote active, personal engagement through reading, writing, and discussion.


Indicator 4: Teachers model effective learning and problem-solving.



Standard 7:  Teachers evaluate and select appropriate, high-quality resources that support learning of the English Language Arts.



Indicator 1: Teachers emphasize interdisciplinary connections through materials selected.


Indicator 2: Teachers promote awareness of diversity through selection of appropriate instructional materials.


Indicator 3: Teachers use information on developmental characteristics of students to provide rich and appropriately challenging materials.



Standard 8:  Teachers encourage students to respond to different media and communications technologies.



Indicator 1: Teachers provide students with appropriate strategies that permit access to and understanding of a wide range of print and non-print texts.


Indicator 2: Teachers engage students in making meaning from texts through personal response.


Indicator 3: Teachers engage students in making meaning from texts through critical response.



Standard 9:  Teachers use assessment as an integral part of instruction and learning.



Indicator 1: Teachers develop a variety of formal and informal assessments appropriate to curricular goals and student needs.


Indicator 2: Teachers interpret and report assessment results clearly, accurately, and purposefully to students, administrators, parents and other audiences.


Indicator 3: Teachers encourage student self-assessment, both formal and informal.


Indicator 4: Teachers employ formative and summative assessments and use resulting data to make pedagogical decisions and to modify instruction.



Standard 10:  Teachers use instruction that promotes understanding of varied uses and purposes for language.



Indicator 1: Teachers model Standard English.


Indicator 2: Teachers employ a variety of dialects and registers to demonstrate understanding of audience and purpose.


Indicator 3: Teachers read and write regularly with students.



Standard 11:  Teachers foster in students an awareness and appreciation of their own and othersí cultures.



Indicator 1: Teachers incorporate diverse resources in context to connect global ideas to student experiences.


Indicator 2:  Teachers respect students' native languages in their relation to the conventions of Standard English.


Indicator 3:  Teachers enhance studentsí understanding of themselves and others to establish classroom cultures of mutual respect.



Standard 12:  Teachers recognize commonalities and individual differences within the classroom.



Indicator 1:   Teachers provide an open trusting environment for sharing oral language.


Indicator 2: Teachers understand that student reading and writing involve personal interpretations in order to respond to literature and other texts.



Standard 13:  Teachers respect and accommodate areas of exceptionality in learning, including learning disabilities, visual and perceptual difficulties, special physical or mental challenges, and giftedness.



Indicator 1: Teachers use instructional materials to meet the various needs of students.


Indicator 2: Teachers use varying strategies and techniques to meet the individual needs of students.


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