Masters in School Administration
These Standards and Indicators were adapted from the Educational Leadership Constituencies Council (ELCC) and the National Policy Board for Educational Administration as approved by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) in January of 2002. The ELCC Standards were developed to assist current and future school administrators meet the changing demands of society and schooling. The ELCC Standards were developed from the well-known ISLLC (Interstate Leaders Licensure Consortium) Standards.
The standards address the need to prepare educational leaders who value and are committed to educating all students to become successful adults. Each educational leader is responsible for creating and articulating a vision of high standards for learning within the school or district that can be shared by all employees and is supported by the broader school community of parents and citizens. This requires that educational leaders be willing to examine their own assumptions, beliefs, and practices; understand and apply research; and foster a climate of continuous improvement among all members of the educational staff. Such educational leaders will commit themselves to high levels of personal and organizational performance in order to ensure implementation of this vision of learning.
The standards address the need for educational leaders to position teaching and learning at the focal point of schools. Educational leaders are responsible for ensuring that decisions about curriculum, instructional strategies (including instructional technology), assessment, and professional development are based on sound research, best practice, school and district data, and other contextual information and that observation and collaboration are used to design meaningful and effective experiences that improve student achievement. Educational leaders must capitalize on diversity to create a school culture that promotes respect and success for all students. All members of the school community should have confidence in the integrity of the decision-making process for school improvement and the appropriateness of that process, thus ensuring dignity and respect for all. Successful educational leaders must be able to identify, clarify, and address barriers to student learning and communicate the importance of developing learning strategies for diverse populations. In addition, this standard requires that educational leaders be learners who model and encourage life-long learning. They should establish a culture of high expectations for themselves, their students, and their staff. Candidates preparing to lead schools or districts must be able to assess the culture and climate on a regular basis. They must also understand the importance of supervision and be able and willing to evaluate teacher and staff performance using a variety of supervisory models.
The standards address the need to enhance student learning through effective, efficient, and equitable utilization of resources. Educational leaders must use their knowledge of organizations to create a learning environment conducive to the success of all students. Proper allocation of resources such as personnel, facilities, and technology are essential to creating an effective learning environment. Resource management decisions should give priority to teaching, student achievement, and student development. Also, operational procedures and policies must be established to maintain school safety and security and to strengthen the academic environment. All management decisions, including those regarding human resources, fiscal operations, facilities, legal issues, time management, scheduling, technology, and equipment, should be based on sound organizational practice. Educational leaders must monitor and evaluate operational systems to ensure that they enhance student learning and reflect the school and district’s accountability to the community. Skills in job analysis, supervision, recruitment, selection, professional development, and appraisal of staff positions, as well as an understanding of relevant collective bargaining agreements, strengthen the ability to use personnel resources. Effective educational leaders define job roles, assign tasks, delegate appropriately, and require accountability. They also actively seek additional sources of financial, human, and physical support. They involve stakeholders to ensure that management and operational decisions take into consideration the needs of multiple constituencies while at the same time focusing the entire community on student achievement as the ultimate goal. To include stakeholders in management designs, educational leaders must be competent in conflict resolution, consensus building, group processes, and effective communication.
The standards address the fact that cooperation among schools, the district, and the larger community is essential to the success of educational leaders and students. Educational leaders must see schools as an integral part of the larger community. Collaboration and communication with families, businesses, governmental agencies, social service organizations, the media, and higher education institutions are critical to effective schooling. The ability to analyze emerging issues and trends that might affect schools and districts enables educational leaders to plan effective instructional programs and school services. Effective and appropriate communications, coupled with the involvement of families and other stakeholders in decisions, helps to ensure continued community support for schools. Seeing families as partners in the education of their children, and believing that families have the best interests of their children in mind, encourages educational leaders to involve them in decisions at the school and district levels. Family and student issues that negatively affect student learning must be addressed through collaboration with community agencies that can integrate health, social, and other services. Such collaboration relies on good relationships with community leaders and outreach to a wide array of business, religious, political, and service agencies. Providing leadership to programs serving all students, including those with special and exceptional needs, further communicates to interval and external audiences the importance of diversity. To work with all elements of the community, educational leaders must recognize, value, and communicate effectively with various cultural, ethnic, racial, and special interest groups. Modeling community collaboration for staff and then offering opportunities for staff to develop collaborative skills maximizes positive interactions between schools and the community.
The standards address the educational leader’s role as the “first citizen” of the school/district community. Educational leaders should set the tone for how employees and students interact with one another and with members of the school, district, and larger community. Teacher’s contacts with students, parents, and employees must reflect concern for others as well as for the organization and the position. Educational leaders must develop the ability to examine personal and professional values that reflect a code of ethics. They must be able to serve as role models, accepting responsibility for using their position ethically and constructively on behalf of the school/district community. Educational leaders must act as advocates for all children, including those with special needs who may be underserved.
The standards address the need for educational leaders to understand and be able to operate within the larger context of the community and beyond, which affects opportunities for all students. Educational leaders must respond to and influence this larger political, social, economic, and cultural context. Of vital importance is the ability to develop a continuing dialogue with economic and political decision makers concerning the role of schools and to build collaborative relationships that support improved social and educational opportunities for children. Educational leaders must be able to participate actively in the political and policy-making context in the service of education, including proactive use of the legal system to protect students’ rights and improve students’ opportunities.
The standards address the importance of structured, sustained, standards-based experiences in authentic settings. The internship is defined as the process and product that results from applying the knowledge and skills described in the previous standards in a workplace environment. Application of standards-based knowledge, skills, and research in real settings over time is a critical aspect of any institutional program. The provision of graduate credit allows institutions to underscore the importance of this activity.
STANDARDS AND INDICATORS
Note: These Standards and Indicators were adapted from the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) and the National Policy Board for Educational Administration as approved by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) in January of 2002.
Indicator 1: Candidates articulate a vision of learning by using relevant knowledge and theories that promote the success of all students.
Indicator 2: Candidates articulate school vision components by demonstrating the skills necessary to implement, support, and communicate a shared commitment to the vision.
Indicator 3: Candidates formulate the initiatives necessary to motivate staff, parents, students, board and community members to achieve the school or district’s vision by involving all stakeholders in collaborative discussions.
Indicator 4: Candidates disseminate administrative policies and practices by communicating effectively with all stakeholders concerning implementation and realization of the vision.
Indicator 1: Candidates promote positive school culture by using multiple methods and implementing context-appropriate strategies that capitalize on the diversity (e.g., population, language, disability, gender, race, socioeconomic) of a school community to improve programs and school culture.
Indicator 2: Candidates maintain a positive culture for learning by capitalizing on multiple aspects of diversity to meet the learning needs of all students in a school or district.
Indicator 3: Candidates promote effective instructional programs by improving curricular materials and pedagogy and assisting school and district personnel in understanding and applying best practices for student learning.
Indicator 4: Candidates apply best practices to student learning by understanding a variety of instructional research methodologies and by analyzing the comparable strengths and weaknesses of each method in order to improve instructional programs by engaging in meaningful activities.
Indicator 5: Candidates design and implement well planned development programs by using and promoting technology and information systems to enrich curriculum and instruction.
Indicator 1: Candidates manage organizations by using research-based knowledge of learning, teaching, student development, organizational development, data management and assessment to optimize learning.
Indicator 2: Candidates manage operations by involving appropriate personnel in conducting routine functions and setting priorities to maximize ownership and instructional accountability.
Indicator 3: Candidates manage resources by focusing on effective organization and management of finances, personnel, and materials as well as by giving priority to student learning and safety in the school or district.
Indicator 1: Candidates collaborate with family and community members by supporting the planning and implementation of programs and services for diverse interests and needs to positively affect student learning.
Indicator 2: Candidates respond to diversity (cultural, ethnic, racial, economic, and special interest groups) of the school and the community by monitoring, adjusting, and improving school programs to meet the diverse needs of all students.
Indicator 3: Candidates mobilize community resources by applying community relations models, marketing strategies and processes, data-based decision-making, and communication theory to craft frameworks for school, family, business, community, government, and higher education partnerships which reflect a comprehensive understanding that schools are an integral part of a larger, diverse community.
Indicator 1: Candidates demonstrate a respect for the rights of others by being sensitive to individual needs in their interactions with students, parents, teachers, and other professionals.
Indicator 2: Candidates act responsibly by making and explaining decisions that promote student success based upon ethical and legal principles, professional integrity, and fairness.
Indicator 1: Candidates articulate the policies, laws, and regulations enacted by local, state, and federal authorities affecting schools or districts.
Indicator 2: Candidates analyze and describe the social, economic, and cultural context in a school community or district and possess the ability to explain various theories of change and conflict resolution.
Indicator 3: Candidates communicate beyond the school walls and advocate with members of a school community or school board for policies and programs that promote equitable learning opportunities and success for all students.
Indicator 1: Candidates complete a full-time internship, or equivalent, with appropriate and substantial responsibilities, gradually increasing in amount and complexity with direct, purposeful interaction with school or central office staff, students, parents, and community leaders, that is developed and supervised cooperatively by the institution and school district personnel to accommodate the candidate’s individual needs.
Indicator 2: Candidates apply the knowledge and skills articulated in the above six standards and any local district standards for educational leaders, in order to receive graduate credit for their intern experience.